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“The only thing necessary for these diseases to the triumph is for good people and governments to do nothing.”

HIV/AIDS Issues:
Women

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"In the year 2001, it would be fair to say that HIV has emerged as a phenomenon in the lives of people world-wide and has become a social reality. Sadly, the focus of government-sponsored programmes has been only on prevention of the spread of HIV, and not on care, treatment and/ or support. Despite the obvious trends, government campaigns have been desperately slow and have been targeting populations in a compartmentalized manner. The government has been unwilling to look at the issues relating to illness within a family and the consequent dip in its economic conditions.

The sense of crisis is heightened as more and more people get infected with HIV and are dying due to the lack of medicines and treatment in hospitals. The rapidly emerging problems that families, including women and children, have to deal with have been completely ignored and HIV has shifted the burden on to people who are themselves dependent on food, clothing, shelter, medicines, etc. The laws of the land have evolved to partly protect the economic rights of women and their matrimonial property rights. Paradoxically, the ground realities and social circumstances relating to HIV have only perpetuated, exacerbated and heightened the inequalities that render women homeless and destitute - this despite the fact that the position of women under law has changed radically.

Women have for long been economically dependent. Economic dependency was fostered so that the wife could fulfill her role of procreation, bring up children and be available for sex to the husband. The law casts a duty upon a man to maintain his wife, children and aged parents. The wife thus has a right to be maintained by her husband, during marriage, on separation and as alimony on divorce. Maintenance includes providing a residence, food, clothing, medicines and the basic comforts in life. The amount of maintenance would depend on the income of the husband.

In the HIV scenario, the economic burden of the family seems to be falling on women and children. When the husband, the breadwinner in the family, falls ill and enters the symptomatic stage, he is unable to work. He thus has no source of income and cannot maintain his wife and children. The few savings made over the years are spent on treatment. Consequently the nutrition levels of the family as a whole fall drastically. The women often sell their jewellery to pay for the costs of medicines and treatment. The children are forced to drop out of school, as they have to look after an ill parent, do chores in the house and contribute to the finances in the family. This is a common phenomenon in most families affected by HIV. ." WOMEN AND HIV/AIDS - THE PERPETUAL BATTLE OF THE "BETTER HALF'S

The Deadly Impact of the Philippines Abortion Ban

putting lives of women at risk because many times this procedure is done under unsterile conditions exposing them to many of the bloodborne infections.

  

Forsaken Lives: The Harmful Impact of the Phillipine Criminal Abortion Act from Center for Reproductive Rights on Vimeo.

ADDITIONAL ARTICLES:

Document Name & Link to Document

Description

File Size /pdf

A Critical Examination of Responses to prostitution in Four Countries: Victoria, Australia; Ireland; the Netherlands; and Sweden Prostitution has proved a vexatious issue for politicians and policy makers.  From the mid-nineteenth century to the late twentieth century there were two broad positions: the ‘abolitionist’ and the ‘regulatory’.  More recently a third possibility has been explored-legalization. 624 kb pdf
A Review of Literature on Child Prostitution Child prostitution has received little attention…until the past decade, and there is still a paucity of research.  Significant barriers to systematic research and understanding of the issues are the invisibility of under-are prostitutes, problems defining what constitutes under age prostitution and the lack of services for the children affected. 117 kb pdf
A WAITING ROOM OF THEIR OWN: THE FAMILY CARE NETWORK AS A MODEL FOR PROVIDING GENDER-SPECIFIC LEGAL SERVICES TO WOMEN WITH HIV As the fastest growing segment of the HIV epidemic in the United States, women with HIV have substantial needs for services, including legal services, many of which go unmet. HIV-infected women face numerous, varied, and [*pg 104] complex gender-specific barriers that prevent them from accessing legal services at the rate and in the manner that they would in the absence of such barriers.  

'ABCs" of HIV Prevention.

Abstinence/delay of sexual debut, Being faithful/partner reduction, and Condom use—is key to understanding and combating sexual transmission of HIV

Pdf 521 kb

Abuses against sex workers and erosions of HIV prevention efforts resulting from anti-trafficking initiatives The following is direct testimony from a Pondicherry-based NGO, SFDRT describing exactly how anti-trafficking programmes are rolling out IN PRACTICE. Whatever the theory of anti-trafficking, UNAIDS, ILO, UNDP, USAID and others must see that in practice anti-trafficking initiatives are a direct threat to sexual health programmes and to the human rights of sex workers and migrants  
Addressing Gender-based violence-HIV sector Around the world at least one woman in every three has been beaten, coerced into sex, or otherwise abused in her lifetime.  Gender-based violence can result in many negative consequences for women’s health and well-being. 1723 kb pdf

Addressing HIV-Related Stigma and Discrimination in Africa 

ICRW and its in-country partners are investigating how HIV/AIDS-related stigma is manifested in a community context. By focusing on the community and its institutions - health facilities, the workplace, schools, and religious groups - as the basis for analysis, ICRW and its partners will gain an understanding of those factors that perpetuate or mitigate stigma and create barriers to HIV prevention, care, and support efforts.

 

Adolescent Girls and Young Women and HIV/AIDS Most at risk are those with a history of sexual abuse, poverty, violence, or limited educational and economic opportunities 152 kb pdf
Adolescent Women 
Face 
Triple Jeopardy: 
Unwanted Pregnancy,
 HIV/AIDS
New HIV infections and AIDS cases continue to increase in 
most developing countries, while the AIDS epidemic has most 
recently reached a plateau or shown signs of a slight overall 
decline in much of the developed world.  Where AIDS is 
increasing, new HIV infection is disproportionately
high among young women who contract the virus through sexual
 intercourse…This same group has the highest rate worldwide of 
unwanted pregnancy, pointing to a potentially significant 
epidemiological overlap of reproductive health risk.  
 
African Media Women Professional, HIV/AIDS and the Cultural Factor This report is of a presentation and recommendations.  The main objective of this seminar was to examine the cultural, professional and social constraints media women professionals encounter in Africa within their traditional environment…the seminar aimed to determine the impact of reporting on HIV/AIDS in specific contexts in Africa and to in order to determine whether the way HIV/AIDS treated in the media contributes to intensifying or reducing the stigmatization of people living with AIDS 1342 kb pdf
African Microenterprise AIDS Initiative- Preventing the spread of HIV/AIDS by empowering women in Africa Disadvantaged African women require both economic empowerment and HIV/AIDS education to significantly reduce their susceptibility to the HIV virus.  Their lack of resources and understanding constrains them to high-risk sexual behavior  

African Women Acting Together Against HIV/AIDS

 

The chaotic pandemic of HIV/AIDS continues to have a devastating impact on African women, young people and children. It became the principal economic, social, cultural, political and religious issue influencing daily life in Africa. The tremendous impact and the rapidity of the spread of HIV/AIDS have changed the African’s view on the pandemic. Long gone is the time when many were in denial of the disaster. Today, everyone in Africa knows that denying the reality of the evil doesn’t save human lives. Pdf 1183 kb

AIDS Communication--an international view

What is an “international” perspective?

 

AIDS-proof your marriage - use a condom

Thirty-four year-old Joan Gray has never led a dissolute life so she felt she had little need to worry about using a condom or being at risk for HIV/AIDS.

She was wrapped up in the security of a Christian marriage anchored on trust. Her husband Paul was also firmly rooted in the faith. "I trusted him because he was a child of God. And I know that if you are a child of God, you wouldn't do nothing to at all to hurt your wife or your husband," she said ruefully as she reflected on her ten-year marriage.

She is now HIV-positive - not as a result of her husband cheating on her but because he had had unprotected sex in a previous relationship. "Five years after we got married he learned that his ex-girlfriend had died of AIDS. He never went to get tested and he never told me," she said.
 
Approaches to prostitution Power point presentation 655 kb
As Hunger Stalks Southern Africa, HIV/AIDS is the Price Women Pay

The high HIV/AIDS infection rate is exacerbating the food crisis, according to a recent Food and Agricultural Organisation (FAO) report. Subsistence farmers, who make up the bulk of most countries' populations, are struggling to produce enough food to survive.

"The disease is no longer a health problem alone, but is having a measurable impact on food production, household food security and rural people's ability to make a living," the report said.
 
Assessing the HIV Prevention Needs of Diverse Communities of Women The issues of increasing HIV infection rates among women in Canada is cause for concern.  More specifically, the causes of HIV infection among women are not only a public health concern, but also highlight the need to better explicate the connection between women’s risk for HIV infection and social, political, and economic factors. 158 kb pdf
Asian American Women: Issues, Concerns, and Responsive Human and Civil Rights Advocacy The lack of education among Asian American women leaves them with the false belief that they are not at risk for breast or cervical cancer or fatalistic resignation if diagnosed with cancer.  
Assessing Self-Efficacy for HIV Serostatus Disclosure Four studies were conducted to systematically develop scales for assessing self-efficacy to disclose HIV status to sex partners and negotiate safer sex practices among men and women living with HIV/AIDS Pdf 140 kb
Awareness, Attitude and Prevention of HIV among Pregnant Women in Maharashtra State, India Awareness and knowledge of HIV/AIDS has increased in the rural areas of Maharashtra since 1999 and can be considered equal with the urban women from 2001. There are still people who have no knowledge of HIV and people with misconceptions of how it is spread. Further campaigns in media and additional efforts to continue to raise the level of awareness among the people in India are essential. To prevent an AIDS-epidemic like in Sub-Saharan Africa, India must fight poverty, increase the general level of education and empower the women. million Pdf 606 kb
Background Paper for the North American Regional Consultation on the Commercial Sexual Exploitation of Children Any attempts to develop a profile of youth who are involved in prostitution in Canada are difficult because of lack of information.  There is some evidence that many are runaways and homeless and engage in street prostitution.  However, there also are indications that some engage in prostitution even though they live at home, and some work in venues run under the auspices of other businesses such as escort agencies. 349 kb pdf

Bangladesh-Human Rights Violation

Human Rights Watch found in investigations conducted in 2002 that the Bangladesh government both commits and condones the commission of severe violations of the human right of persons in all three of these high-risk groups, including peer educators who provide vital HIV prevention services

Pdf 1,253 kb

Bangladeshi Girls sold as Wives in North India This report is based on the study of 112 Bangladeshi girls and women who were purchased to serve as wives to men of Uttar Pradesh or toher parts of North India.  In most cases, parents had consented to the marriage but were not aware of the sale.  The obligation to marry a daughter early and the impossibility for poor parents to meet dowry demands were the main push factors. 381 kb pdf
Baseline survey of sexually transmitted infections in a cohort of female bar workers in Mbeya Region, Tanzania Our study shows that prevalences of STI and HIV are very high among female bar workers in Mbeya Region. Taken together with the data on high risk behaviours—for example, low prevalence of reported condom use with both regular and casual partners, these findings reveal a largely unmet need for interventions supporting behaviour change and effective STI care for female bar workers and their male clients in order to reduce the transmissions of STI and HIV and the negative health and social impact of untreated infection.  
Best Practices to address the Demand Side of Sex Trafficking Each year, hundreds of thousands of women and children around the world become victims of the global sex trade.  They are recruited into prostitution, often using tactics involving force, fraud, or coercion.  Criminals working in organized networks treat the victims like commodities, buying and selling them for profit.  This modern-day form of slavery is called sex trafficking. Pdf 789 kb
Breaking the silence - Stigma, discrimination and HIV/AIDS
Hers is not the sort of life anyone would wish on his or her
 worst enemy. To describe it as rough would be an 
understatement.
 
Breastfeeding and HIV/AIDS: is there a conflict? “The HIV pandemic and the risk of mother-to-child transmission of HIV through breastfeeding continues to pose unique challenges to the promotion of breastfeeding, even among unaffected families. Accurate information, disseminated widely, about breastfeeding’s benefits for the majority of children and mothers is essential for preventing baseless doubts in this connection. Support for HIV-positive women should include counseling about appropriate infant-feeding options”.  
Bringing comprehensive HIV prevention to scales Many women are denied the knowledge and tools to protect themselves from HIV. Surveys in 38 countries found extremely low HIV-transmission knowledge among 15–24-year-old women (UNFPA, 2002). It is vital to implement comprehensive strategies, including gender-specific and culturally specific services that help women counteract discriminatory social and economic factors. Key components include: access to education (particularly secondary education); strengthening legal protection for women’s property and inheritance rights; eradicating violence against women and girls; and ensuring equitable access to HIV care and prevention services. Men are often regarded as a major part of the problem. However, they need to be a substantial part of the solution by: taking responsibility for fidelity and safer sex; committing themselves to their daughters’ education; alleviating women’s burden of care; and embracing a zero-tolerance attitude towards violence against women.  
Borderline Slavery-child trafficking in Togo  (Large report-increase download time) This report documents the trafficking of children in Togo, in particular the trafficking of girls into domestic and market work and the trafficking of boys into agricultural work.  They are recruited on false promise of education, professional training and paid employment…if they escape or are released, denied the protections necessary to reintegrate them into society. 8,395 kb pdf
Breaking Through the Clouds-PAR project with migrant children and youth along the borders of China, Myanmar and Thailand The vulnerabilities of migrant children and youth are not only the result of limited understanding and documentation, but also due to the lack of insight into how best to address their realities…This is particularly the case for young girls trafficked into the sex-industry, or as domestic workers, those abusing drugs, child beggars and young migrants separated from their family members in immigration detention centers. 192 kb pdf
Chains of Affection: The Structure of Adolescent Romantic and Sexual Networks Understanding the Structure of sexual networks is critical for modeling disease transmission dynamics, if disease is spread via sexual contact.  This article describes the structure of an adolescent sexual network among a population of over 800 adolescents residing in a mid-sized town in the mid western United States  
Child Prostitution and Sex Tourism -Venezuela Sex tourists represent a steady and lucrative demand for prostitutes and many of the people who are likely to be sacrificed to this demand are under the age of 18.  In virtually every society, the prostitution ‘labor market’ feeds upon the dispossessed and the disempowered, and alongside migrants, children Pdf 148 kb
Children in prostitution, pornography and illicit activities-Thailand-Magnitude of problems and remedies Children younger than 18 years of age in prostitution are invariable victims of sexual exploitation.  Compared to adults, they are clearly much more vulnerable and helpless in fact of the established structures and vested interests in the sex sector, and much more likely to be victims of debt bondage, trafficking, physical violence, or torture.  Commercial sexual exploitation is a serious form of violence against children with life-long and life-threatening consequences. 152 kb pdf
Chlamydial Infection and Gonorrhea in Teenage Women With the highest rate of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) in the developed world, the United States is in the throes of a "hidden epidemic," according to a recent report from the Institute of Medicine.1 In addition to the high human cost to the victims of these diseases and their families, the authors of the report estimate that the financial burden of this epidemic to US taxpayers is at least $10 billion per year - not including the costs of HIV infection.  
Can an HIV positive woman find true love? Romance in the stories of women living with HIV The majority of new HIV infections worldwide occur in women, and women's experiences of living with HIV have special connections with heterosexual relationships, reproduction, and romance. Romance is also an important narrative genre for feminism, generating controversy over whether it can resignify or only reinforce dominant discourses and practices of gender and sexuality.   
Child Sex Tourism and the Media in India In public discourse child sex tourism is not considered a major social issue in India, partly because of the perception that the problem is not as acute as in some countries of South East Asia and partly because the problem is largely associated only with poverty conditions. The social acceptability of having sex with a ‘minor’ is largely ignored because large-scale child marriage still takes place.  In addition, women from a number of social groups are considered ‘inferior’ and their sexual exploitation is not considered as ‘something ‘ wrong in a section of Indian society. The women and girls of Dalit and Adivasi communities are termed as ‘ loose’ and therefore free for all to sexually exploit. The perception of the Indian society about commercial sexual exploitation of children is largely governed by ‘poverty syndrome’.  
China’s Growing AIDS Epidemic Increasingly Affects Women Increases in the heterosexual transmission of HIV in China are fueling concerns—including among senior Chinese leaders—that the epidemic may be moving from specific regions and at-risk groups into the general population, where the virus could more easily prey on women's vulnerabilities.  
Cities turn to humiliation to fight prostitution It's part of a tactic more and more cities are using, cracking down on prostitution by focusing on demand, often using tactics of humiliation - like Chicago's website or billboards in Oakland, Calif. - to try and convince potential customers to stay home.  
Cognitive and behavioral predictors of sexually transmitted disease risk behavior among sexually active adolescents Risky sexual behaviors during adolescence may not change once patterns are set. A total of 410 sexually active youths aged 14 to 21 reported on health beliefs and sexual behaviors at baseline and one year later. Responses to the first survey and knowing how to use condoms predicted responses to the second survey in both sexes. Among girls, oral contraceptive use, ability to discuss sexually transmitted disease prevention with partners, and alcohol use explained variability in risky behaviors. Among boys, perceived risk of sexually transmitted disease, negative opinion of condom use, and barriers to obtaining condoms explained variability in risky behaviors.  
Comment: The Link between HIV Infection and Marriage With 80 percent of HIV cases worldwide transmitted by sexual contact, promoting marriage and sexual fidelity would seem to make sense as a way to limit the spread of AIDS. Yet this politically popular approach to public health among conservative policymakers in the United States promotes the false assumption that within marriage, sex is always safe-and consequently puts unknowing men and women at increased risk of infection. This fidelity fallacy holds enormous implications for the effectiveness of our government's global AIDS prevention program, where almost $400 million was spent last year in 15 focus countries for the President's Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief, or PEPFAR.  
Condom use, power and HIV/AIDS risk: sex-workers bargain for survival in Johannesburg This paper focuses on factors that affect sexual decision-making including safer sex practices.  In moving beyond approaches that emphasize women’s ‘powerlessness’ in sexual negotiation, this article focuses on ways in which sex-workers capitalize on clients’ reluctance to use condoms in sexual exchanges Pdf 220 kb

Consequence of Stigma

The impact of stigma on the affected individual can lead to feelings of depression, guilt and shame, as well as to behavior that limits participation within communities and access to services intended to assist them. Additionally, the fear of being stigmatized can lead to individual behavior that heightens the risk of transmission.

 

Contraceptive Use Dynamics-Kenya.

Despite substantial declines in fertility and increases in contraceptive adoption over the past two decades, unmet need for family planning remains high in Kenya with about one in four married women having an unmet need for family planning

Pdf 884 kb

CONTRABAND WOMEN Irina always assumed that her beauty would somehow rescue her from the poverty and hopelessness of village life.  A few months ago, after answering a vague ad in a small Ukrainian newspaper, she slipped off a tour boat when it put in at Haifa, hoping to make a bundle dancing naked on the tops of tables. She was 21, self-assured and glad to be out of Ukraine.  Israel offered a new world, and for a week or two everything seemed possible.  Then, one morning, she was driven to a brothel, where her boss burned her passport before her eyes.  "I own you," she recalled his saying.  "You are my property, and you will work until you earn your way out.  Don't try to leave.  You have no papers and you don't speak Hebrew.  You will be arrested and deported.  Then we will get you and bring you back."  
Coping and Safer Sex Maintenance Intervention for Men and Women Living with HIV-AIDS People living with HIV/AIDS endure numerous challenges.  HIV-related stressors include dealing with complex medical and health choices, coping with chronic symptoms, dealing with disability, and grief and bereavement of multiple losses.  Among the most stressful situations for many men and women living with HIV infection, are those that stem from close and intimate relationships, namely decisions of when and how to disclose their HIV serostatus to others and maintaining safe sex practices.  
Correlates of Perceived Health in Women Diagnosed with HIV Disease The purpose of this descriptive study was to examine the relationships among self-efficacy, social support, quality of life, and overall health perception in a sample of 61 women with a mean age of 40 years living with HIV disease. Data collection occurred in a university-based AIDS clinic in a large metropolitan city in the southern United States. Each participant completed a sociodemographic questionnaire, the Sickness Impact Profile, the Norbeck Social Support Questionnaire, and the Strategies Used by Patients to Promote Health Questionnaire. The findings suggest that social support and quality of life were significantly related to overall perception of health. Self-efficacy had an indirect impact on overall perception of health via social support. These findings support the need for nurses to continue exploring ways to integrate social support within the domains of clinical practice of persons with HIV disease.  
Dating Violence and Sexually Transmitted Disease/HIV Testing and Diagnosis Among Adolescent Females More than one third (38.8%) of adolescent girls tested for STD or HIV and more than half (51.6%) of girls diagnosed with STD/HIV reported experiencing dating violence. Compared with nonabused girls, girls who experienced both physical and sexual dating violence were 3.0 times more likely to have been tested for STD and HIV, and 2.6 times more likely to report an STD diagnosis.  

Determinants of HIV Knowledge and Behavior of Women in Madagascar: An Analysis Using Matched Household and Community Data

We estimate the determinants of HIV/AIDS knowledge and related behavior (use of condoms) among women in Madagascar, a country where prevalence remains low but conditions are ripe for a rapid increase in infections. In both rural and urban areas, more educated and wealthier women are more likely to know about means of preventing infection, less likely to have misconceptions about transmission, and more likely to use condoms. Community factors such as availability of health centers and access to roads also lead to greater HIV knowledge. However, most of the large rural-urban difference in mean knowledge is due not to location per se but to differences in schooling and wealth; rather than simply being geographically targeted, AIDS education efforts must be designed to target and be understood by uneducated and poor subpopulations. Pdf 242 kb
Developing Better Indicators of Human Trafficking This article examines why producing reliable data on trafficking has proven so difficult and suggests various measures that could be taken to improve such data.  In particular, this article argues that better use could be made of data emerging from the growing number of counter-trafficking programs. Pdf 163 kb
Documenting the Experience of Sex Workers To prevent HIV transmission via commercial sex, a number of countries in the Asia and East region, including Cambodia, have adopted “100% Condom use Programs.”  These programs mandate consistent condom use during all commercial sex acts and outline sanctions against brothel management for fail to comply. 345 kb pdf

Domestic Workers and AIDS Discrimination

Florence Tshabalala [not her real name] had been barely working for a month when her employer took her to the clinic for what was supposed to be a routine check-up. After being tested for HIV without her knowledge, she was told that her services as a domestic worker were no longer needed.

 

Don't Sell my Body Anymore because I can sell Drugs

The Salamon Foundation is committed to the regeneration of community in southern Hungary, and has particular regard for the special needs of women and girl-children who participate in sex work.

 

Drug-Using Women Need Comprehensive Sexual Risk Reduction Interventions In the United States, drug users have dramatically reduced drug-related risk behaviors but continue sexual behaviors that place them at risk for HIV infection.  Successful interventions are likely to be those that intervene at multiple levels, yet, historically, sexual interventions for drug users have primarily address only personal factors, such as condom use 77 kb pdf
Early Infant Diagnosis of HIV through Dried Blood Spot Testing: Without treatment, an infant infected with HIV in Africa has a 35 percent chance of dying by his first birthday and a 53 percent chance of dying before the age of two. But if the baby receives prophylactic antibiotics, such as cotrimoxazole, soon after birth and Antiretroviral Therapy (ART) as soon as is medically indicated, he has a good chance of surviving childhood and living a long, healthy life. 1477 kb pdf
Economic globalization and the rise of prostitution in Asia Pacific Too often, the sex worker finds her freedom severely constrained.  She has no control over her life, her future, not even the most basic sense of being in command of her body.  She will never receive the opportunity to develop her potential as a human being.  She will be branded as an outsider, a polluter, a bad woman, despite the fact the most of the time she is the victim of circumstances beyond her control. Pdf 46 kb
Economic Impact and Globalization of Human Trafficking Human trafficking, whether for labor purposes or as part of the global sex trade, remains a form of modern-day slavery and servitude.  Although not a new occurrence, it is an emerging national policy issue of great magnitude and cost—and a clear violation of basic human rights and conditions. Pdf 187 kb
EMERGING ISSUES AND DEVELOPMENTS AT THE REGIONAL LEVEL: SOCIO-ECONOMIC MEASURES TO ALLEVIATE POVERTY IN RURAL AND URBAN AREAS Empowerment of women in the economic and social fields constitutes one of the fundamental objectives of all development efforts in the region. Following the adoption of the Jakarta Declaration for the Advancement of Women in Asia and the Pacific (1994), and the Beijing Declaration and the Platform for Action (1995), significant achievements have been made in empowering women in the region. Their economic participation has shown uneven but steady progress with gender differentials in wages falling in many instances. Significant progress has also been made in terms of increases in female literacy and life expectancy rates, and reduction in mortality rates  
Empowering Communities to Reduce the Impact of Infectious Diseases Infectious diseases continue to cause ill health and deaths to millions worldwide, despite advances in public health over the last 100 years — advances that include the development of vaccines and antibiotics and improvements in sanitation. In many developing countries, women face particular difficulties in warding off infection because of social and economic obstacles to accessing health information and services. To reduce the impact of disease on women, some infectious-disease prevention programs are employing community-based approaches conducted by women  

EXCERCISE OF SEXUALITY AND PLEASURE OF PEOPLE LIVING WITH HIV/AIDS

The biological anatomic-physiological elements, are mainly related with the capacity of reproduction inherent to the existance of the sexes and with the capacity of experimenting pleasant sensations linked to the sexual arousement and the orgasm, and are the ones most frequently identified with the concept of sexual acts, and even with the one of sexuality, though in reality, they’re only part of it…Psychological elements are refferred as to the human capacity of experimenting and sharing feelins, while socials are related with the appreciation the sexual acts receive as good or bad in each society and with the power relations that are established between individuals because of their ascription within a defined group in principle because its sexual characters.  
Fair Chance-education, gender—a report from the United Nations Three years ago…the international community re-affirmed its commitment to eliminating gender inequality in basic education provision throughout the world. 362 kb pdf

Female Circumcision

There are an estimated ninety to a hundred million women and girls living today in African countries that have had some form of female circumcision (Lane and Rubinstein 1996). Recent articles in the media have reported the growing practice of female circumcision in the US and Europe, among immigrants from countries where it is part of the culture. Circumcision occurs for a number of cultural reasons, such as religion, tradition, preserving virginity, and cultural identification. However, the practice of severe forms of female circumcision is now proven to be a great health risk, and the women of the societies that still practice female circumcision risk severe health problems. This paper reviews the practice of female circumcision and proposes a plan to reduce the use of harmful forms of circumcision, and consequently, the health problems associated with it  
Female Condom and Dual Protection
In this era of global crisis with an AIDS epidemic and 
variable availability of reproductive health services, it is 
critical that all of us become protectors of our nation’s 
health.  Unintended pregnancy and sexually transmitted 
infections yield poverty, infertility, social upheaval, and 
at times, death.
395 kb pdf
Female sex worker HIV prevention projects: Lessons learnt from Papua New Guinea, India and Bangladesh None of the projects selected is a perfect example of all criteria…What these case studies represent is a set of experiences and lessons that might clarify for others the areas of strength and weakness typical in successful female sex worker projects.  To the greatest extent possible, we have shown the real difficulties and triumphs of each of the projects. 743 kb pdf
Final Report from the North American Regional Consultation on the Commercial Sexual Exploitation of Children These Stories describe but tow of more than one million children who are trafficked, sold, or forced into prostitution or pornography each year.  In Canada, Mexico and the United States, hundreds of thousands of children annually are sexually abused for profit 508 kb pdf
For sale: Burmese virgins
PROSTITUTION
"What can we do in Burma? We have no money but we need 
to eat. Burmese soldiers don't love the people. They force us 
to work but pay us nothing. They also extort money or rice from 
us. If we don't give it to them, we may get raped," complained 
Kham Euay, 19, a Tai-Lue girl from Shan State. "So coming to 
seek our fortune here, I thought, is better than starving at home," 
added the girl, who is also now infected with the Aids virus
 
FORCED SEXUAL RELATIONS among married young women in developing countries The paucity of nationally representative data makes it difficult to establish the prevalence of nonconsensual sex among married young women in developing countries. What is clear however from papers presented at the New Delhi meeting is that early forced sex is reported by married young women living in diverse contexts. Where arranged marriage is the norm, few women exercise choice in whom they will marry; forced sex is also experienced in settings in which partner choice among young women is more prevalent. Indeed, evidence from the DHS and other surveys suggests that between 3 and 23 per cent of married young women (aged 15-24) in developing countries such as Cambodia, Colombia, Haiti, India, Nepal, Nicaragua and Zambia have ever experienced non-consensual sex by a current or former spouse Pdf 165 kb
from where are the bar-girls ??? Traffic in women is by no means new. It is as old as the earliest civilization and continues to this day. In written history, there are references to slave auctions of women who were bought either for domestic labor or brothel bondage. As late as 1991, we hear of kidnapped women at the Pakistan-Afghan border being sold in the marketplace for R600 per kilogram.  
From White Slave to Trafficking Survivors The Global flow of money, goods, culture and ideas has been accompanied by a global flow of people…Attention for the topic of trafficking in migrants has found so far most resonance within human rights organizations, numerous non-governmental and international organizations, bodies and lobby networks, as well as in sensationalist media. 120 kb pdf

Further evidence of super-infection found in African sex workers and Swiss drug injectors 

Super-infection - that is, infection with a genetically diverse strain of HIV once chronic infection is established - was the topic of three presentations on the first full day of the Second International AIDS Society Conference on HIV Pathogenesis and Treatment in Paris.

 

Gender, AIDS, and ARV Therapies-ensuring that women gain equitable access to drugs Given limited resources, choices will inevitable be made about who will be treated and when, raising the issues of equity in access to treatment for sub-groups of those infected 181 kb pdf
Gender and Global Policing: Neoliberal Globalization and the Transnational Sex Industry Long argues that ‘contemporary trafficking operations transform traditional bride wealth and marriage exchanges by treating women’s sexuality and bodies as commodities to be bought and sold in various Western capitals and Internet spaces. Pdf 268 kb
Gender and HIV/AIDS Almost as many women as men are now dying of AIDS.  However, there are important differences between women and men in the underlying mechanisms of HIV/AIDS infection and in the social and economic consequences of HIV/AIDS.  These stem from biology, sexual behaviour and socially constructed ‘gender’ differences between women and men in roles and responsibilities, access to resources and decision-making power 591 kb pdf

Gender and HIV/AIDS: From Policy to Practice 

"The face of AIDS is becoming the face of young women". This was a recent comment of the Director of UNAIDS, Dr Peter Piot, who said that 58 per cent of those infected with HIV in Africa are women.

 

GENDER, DEVELOPMENT AND THE HIV EPIDEMIC In this paper we will discuss some broad issues concerning the relationship between the HIV epidemic and development in general, and the effects which the epidemic will have (or is already having) in undermining decades of development achievement. Secondly, we will examine the necessity for a view of development processes based on a gender analysis, and why it is not possible to understand development by means of a gender-blind approach. Thirdly we will try to provide some insights into the differential impact of the HIV epidemic on men and women, and the consequences of this for society and the economy. This will include a discussion of gender, poverty and the HIV epidemic, and the ways in which the epidemic is intensifying poverty in general and poverty among women in particular. Fourthly we review population issues in order to identify what are the critical lessons for policy that are relevant to the global and national response to HIV and AIDS. Finally we will ask some questions concerning how as development practitioners these issues can be addressed and incorporated into ongoing work; what do we mean by good development practice in the context of the epidemic?  

Gender, HIV/AIDS transmission and impacts: a review of issues and evidence

The female: male ratio of HIV/AIDS infection varies by age, with women tending to be infected at younger ages on average than men.  Regional variation in the extent to which men and women are affected is also evident, with highest rates of female infection occurring in countries where heterosexual transmission is the dominant mode and overall prevalence rates are high, including Sub-Saharan Africa and the Caribbean.  In Africa, with an adult prevalence rate of 7.41 percent, 50 percent of those infected are female.  In the Caribbean, with the next highest adult prevalence rate of 1.82 percent, 33 percent of those infected are female.  The percentage of women among those infected is particularly low (and therefore the proportion of men higher) in East Asia and the Pacific (13 percent).  Up to 80 percent of all women worldwide affected by HIV/AIDS are in Sub-Saharan Africa.  Peri-natal transmission is also an important and gender-specific route of HIV infection, where significant numbers of the female population of reproductive age are infected.  Overall, around 33 percent of children of HIV-positive mothers are estimated to be infected. Pdf 423 kb
Gender, Sexuality, and HIV/AIDS: The What, the Why, and the How Gender is not a synonym for sex.  It refers to the widely shared expectations and norms within a society about appropriate male and female behavior, characteristics, and roles.  It is a social and cultural construct that differentiates women from men and defines the ways in which women and men interact with each other Pdf 286 kb
Gender and Theology in Africa today Gender in current parlance signifies the power relation between masculine and feminine. The gender ideology presupposes that the masculine encompasses the female, or takes priority in relation to the female and is entitled to expect subordination and submissiveness and self-abasement of the female. The gender ideology is not limited to biology. It is also social and appears in relations among men as among women and among nations. It functions, as a pecking order colonies were females in relations to the colonizing nations.  

Gender Equity & Peacebuilding

Gender discrimination continues through political exclusion, economic marginalization, and sexual violence during and after conflict, denying women their human rights and constraining the potential for development

316 kb pdf

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Gender-based violence & HIV/AIDS in South Africa

Conditions for the correlation between gender-based violence and HIV/AIDS can be specified and amended in considering the history and the structures of gendered power relations in South Africa

834 kb pdf

Gender, HIV/AIDS and Rights-A training manual for the media Media practitioners’ gender prejudices and biases are one of the major blocks to the diverse portrayals of women, and to their voices in the media.  Journalists and editors are socialized as men and as women, long before they choose journalism as a career.  This socialization influences how the media reports on, portrays and provides access to women. 502 kb pdf

Gendered representations of HIV/AIDS and the reproduction of hegemonic discourses on femininity in media images

In the South African context, the media has tended to seize on the most sensational moments of this focus and often reproduced (albeit inadvertently), as the academic literature itself has, problematic representations of women. The following paper draws on visual representations of HIV/AIDS and violence against women, over 5 months of the Mail and Guardian, a progressive weekly newspaper in South Africa, as a snapshot of how HIV/AIDS is currently represented, particularly with respect to women and gender relations. The pictures utilised in this presentation aim to demonstrate the way in which popular representations not only reproduce traditional constructions of women as passive, helpless victims in the realm of HIV, violence and sexual relations, but also highlight the way in which women are inadvertently stigmatised and blamed for the epidemic. Furthermore, the images illustrate the continued processes of 'othering' which also reflects racist and classist discourses in the construction of HIV/AIDS.  
Gender, Reproductive Health, and Advocacy
Gender issues—discrimination, inequities, and stereotypes
—often impede behavior change and put people’s 
reproductive health at risk.  Gender issues must be 
systematically considered and address in all project activities.
105 kb pdf
Global Child Sex Tourism: Children as Tourist Attractions The purpose of this paper is to educate the public about child sex tourism – a form of commercial sexual exploitation of children and a ubiquitous practice that has perilous implications for both children and society throughout the world. Pdf 240 kb
Globalization and Infectious Diseases in Women Women have an enhanced vulnerability to disease, especially if they are poor. Indeed, the health hazards of being female are widely underestimated. Economic and cultural factors can limit women's access to clinics and health workers. The World Health Organization (WHO) reports that less is spent on health care for women and girls worldwide than for men and boys. As a result, women who become mothers and caretakers of children and husbands often do so at the expense of their own health. The numbers tell the story: the latest (2003) World Health Report showed that, globally, the leading causes of death among women are HIV/AIDS, malaria, complications of pregnancy and childbirth, and tuberculosis.  
Globalization, Information Technology, and Sexual Exploitation of Women and Children In this milieu, women and children are increasingly becoming commodities to be bought, sold and consumed by tourists, military personnel, organized crime rings, traffickers, pimps, and men seeking sexual entertainment or non-threatening marriage partners. Around the world today, women and children are increasingly vulnerable to sexual exploitation when they are refugees or migrants, and when they are suffering from the effects of poverty, racism, and caste systems.  
Globalization, Sex and profits-Are governments doing enough to prevent the global expansion of the sex industry Globalization has increased human interaction around the world due to technological advances and the diminishing significance of state and territory borders.  This increased interaction has required governments to cooperate more extensively than ever before to overcome some of the negative effects of globalization 154 kb pdf

Have you ever wondered how these innocent and uneducated village belles' land up as a commercial sex worker in the cities?

Often we have seen in movies and heard that women get sold here in the markets by men who coax them to come to cities with the greed of marriage or jobs

 

Health Activists Link Spread of HIV-AIDS to FGM Female genital mutilation and the feminization of HIV-AIDS are slowly being linked, especially in the three African countries - Somalia, Djibouti and Sudan - where the most extreme FGM is predominant.  
Health Consequences of Trafficking of Women and Girls in Southeast Asia
Throughout Asia, the trafficking of women and girls for the 
sex industry has generated a complex and politically 
sensitive range of health threats and prevention challenges 
for the women involved, local and national health authorities,
 and the international community.
 
80 kb pdf
Health Risks and Consequences of Trafficking in Women and Adolescents
This report represents the findings of a two-year multi-country
 study on women’s health and trafficking to the European 
Union.  It is an initial inquiry into an area about which little 
research has previously been conducted…with women who 
had been trafficked, health care and other service providers, 
NGOs working against trafficking, lawenforcement officials, 
and policy-makers
535 kb pdf
High Prevalence of HBV in HIV+ & HIV- Women –WIHS
Association between Syphilis, Antibodies to Herpes Simplex Virus 
Type 2, and Recreational Drug Use and Hepatitis B Virus Infection
 in the Women's Interagency HIV Study
 

High Incidence of Rape Exposes Girls to HIV/AIDS Infection

"Defilement and HIV/AIDS are interrelated. There is no way you can isolate them. A parent comes in complaining that her child has been defiled. The first thing that crosses her mind is that the child may have contracted HIV/AIDS. In 100 percent of the cases, the parents worry about HIV/AIDS," Nabiryo says.

 

HIV prevalence surveys and routine diagnostic testing among pregnant women Power Point Presentation  
HIV/AIDS Interventions in Female Sex Worker Population in Southern Africa Countries “Sex workers need to be seen as more than their sexual behavior—as women who need to have their emotional, economic, and physical needs addressed.”  To improve the chances of successfully communicating HIV prevention messages to this population, then, it is necessary to investigate and understand their feelings, beliefs, hopes and dreams, and the thinking that goes into daily decisions they have to make. 433 kb pdf

HIV/Hepatitis C in Prison Committee of California Prison Focus

Women prisoner advocates warn that health care cutbacks at the Central California Women’s Prison in Chowchilla are life-threatening to women prisoners with HIV, hepatitis C and other serious illnesses.

 

HIV and infant feeding Guidelines for decision-makers 1,419 kb pdf
HIV and Women Presentation 600 kb pdf
HIV Disease in Women of Color Eighty-one percent of AIDS cases reported among females in the United States during the year ending June 30, 1998 were among women of color, and the majority of AIDS cases in females has been among women of color since the onset of the epidemic in the US 426 kb pdf
HIV Infection Among Incarcerated Women: An Epidemic Behind the Walls Even though women are less likely to be incarcerated than men (one in 10 inmates in US prisons and jails is a woman), incarcerated women are three times more likely to be HIV infected than incarcerated men. The proportion of inmates with HIV (US prisons: 2.3% of men and 3.5% of women) is much higher than the proportion of HIV infected persons in the general population (US free population: 0.6% of men, 0.1% of women). This difference is amplified in the Northeast, where HIV prevalence among incarcerated men is 7% and 13% among incarcerated women.  
HIV PARTNER NOTIFICATION: Why Coercion Won't Work
The term "partner notification" refers to activities aimed at 
identifying sex and/or needlesharing partners of someone 
with a disease communicable through sex or shared needles 
and informing them that they have been exposed to the disease.
 Little empirical work exists that effectively evaluates the costs 
and benefits of partner notification. Voluntary partner notification 
plans, which encourage an infected individual to notify his or her 
partners and provide training and support, are one component of 
effective HIV prevention and treatment. However, the available 
evidence does not justify coercive partner notification. Instead, 
the scientific research shows that partner notification that is not 
voluntary or that is linked to HIV surveillance through name 
reporting will not work.
 
HIV-positive Women Have Different Needs
Ideally, family planning counseling should include information 
about HIV health consequences.
 
HIV PREVENTION AND PROTECTION EFFORTS ARE FAILING WOMEN AND GIRLS Because of their lack of social and economic power, many women and girls are unable to negotiate relationships based on abstinence, faithfulness and use of condoms. It is precisely to address these inequalities and reduce women’s vulnerability to HIV that the Global Coalition on Women and AIDS has been created.”  
HIV Testing Among Pregnant Women --- United States and Canada, 1998--2001 Among the three prenatal HIV testing approaches assessed in this report, opt-out voluntary testing and the mandatory testing of newborns appear to be associated with the highest testing rates. On the basis of the chart-review methodology, prenatal testing rates were higher in Tennessee, which uses the opt-out approach, than rates in states using the opt-in approach and similar to rates achieved with mandatory newborn testing in New York during the same time period  
HIV Testing During Pregnancy: The Value of Optimizing Consent The issues of patient autonomy and informed decision making are at the center of the debate over appropriate standards for HIV testing during pregnancy. State law standards on this issue vary significantly from state to state. Federal policy pronouncements on this issue also lack consistency. Against this legal and policy background, the two articles in this Special Section of AIDS & Public Policy Journal present a significant lesson for policy makers: patients value their decision making autonomy very highly in regard to HIV testing, and that value can be respected while at the same time achieving high rates of testing. Optimizing consent enhances the provider-patient relationship, a critically important relationship for a pregnant woman with HIV infection. Laws and policies that disfavor patients' consent, such as mandatory newborn testing laws, have little justification and should be rejected by policy makers.  
HIV/AIDS and reproductive health-Sensitive and neglected issues HIV-positive women want to avoid pregnancy for a variety of reasons: they fear giving birth to an infected child; they already have the number of children they wish, they want to avoid re-infection with HIV that might accompany unprotected sex, or they want to focus their resources on maintaining their own health and wellbeing and that of their families. It is therefore essential that women living with HIV receive adequate information about, and provision of, modern contraceptive methods. Pdf 468 kb
Home Care for PLWHA: The Power of our Community
The HIV/AIDS pandemic has created a crisis of unprecedented 
proportion that greatly impacts society as a whole, especially women 
and their reproductive health.  Communities everywhere are 
struggling to respond
410 kb pdf
Homemakers at High Risk for AIDS The increasing feminization of AIDS in the Asia Pacific region has been highlighted at the regional congress where a new report by UNAIDS revealed that the number of women living with HIV in the region has increased by 20 percent since 2002 to around 2.3 million and that AIDS has claimed some 540,000 lives in 2004.  

How AIDS kills Africa's battered women

You can learn about condoms, know that fidelity or abstinence can protect you from Aids, but if your husband is HIV- positive, violent and wants sex, there is not a whole lot you can do.

 

How men's power over women fuels the HIV epidemic In sub-Saharan Africa 12-13 women are infected by HIV for every 10 men, and the average rate of infection for teenage girls in some countries is five times higher than that for teenage boys.1 Most of these infections occur through unprotected heterosexual interactions. Women are limited in their ability to control these interactions because of their low economic and social status and because of the power that men have over women's sexuality.  
How to Integrate Gender into HIV/AIDS Programs In many countries around the world, the majority of new infections are occurring in women, particularly adolescents and young adults 725 kb pdf
How to reach clients of female sex workers: a survey ‘by surprise’ in brothels Men present in the brothels could not deny being there and it proved possible to explain the purpose of the study and to gain their confidence.  Collection of saliva samples was shown to be an excellent method for performing HIV testing in difficult field conditions where it is hard to gain access to the population under study. Pdf 75 kb

How we are failing the "trafficked"

In the last decade the "trafficking" of women and children has been reported as a growing and even heinous crime against women and children in Bangladesh.

 

Human Rights Violation of Sex Workers in Kenya This study investigates the human rights violations experienced by women sex workers in Kenya. This research found that these women have no way to claim their individual human rights under the current operating laws and policy framework. They are unable to keep themselves safe as they seek to support themselves and their families because they are relentlessly subject to police harassment, arrest and abuse. Furthermore, because sex work is viewed as an “immoral activity” rather than as a form of labour, many in society believe that sex workers deserve to be punished for what they do. The information and recommendations contained in this report provide ways for the Kenya Government and state institutions to address the human rights concerns of sex workers. Similarly human and women’s rights organisations in Kenya will find many strategies in this report that can be used to advocate for the protection of sex workers’ rights Pdf 771 kb
Human Trafficking for Sexual Exploitation in Japan Trafficking in humans is a revived form of slavery affecting virtually all regions of the world, which has grown steadily since the 1980s to become one of the most lucrative businesses of international criminal organizations.  A recent estimate indicates that trafficking engulfs between one and two million people each year worldwide, especially women and children, generating billions of dollars in profits to the criminal networks that control it. 721 kb pdf
Human Trafficking in the Caribbean and the Human Rights of Migrants While it is true that there is a large supply of potential migrants in many Caribbean countries, it is also true that the trafficking would not occur without a demand for their services.  Part of the dynamic and the irony of irregular migration is the need for cheap, unskilled labour in countries experiencing periods of economic growth. Pdf 630 kb
HUMAN TRAFFICKING OF CHILDREN IN THE UNITED STATES A FACT SHEET FOR SCHOOLS Sex traffickers target children because of their vulnerability and gullibility, as well as the market demand for young victims. The average age of entry into prostitution is 12 to 14 years old and traffickers (also called “pimps”) are known to recruit at schools and after-school programs. Recruitment can take multiple forms, including: 1) kidnapping; 2) solicitation by other women or girls recruiting on behalf of the sex trafficker; and 3) the “loverboy” approach of appearing genuinely interested in a romantic relationship while gradually coercing the victim into prostitution. Pdf 49 kb
I am not a prostitute – Discords in targeted HIV/AIDS prevention interventions in urban and trading center in Malawi This article contributes to the discussion about HIV/AIDS prevention efforts for one of the so-called high-risk groups for HIV/AIDS in Sub-Saharan Africa: prostitutes or commercial sex workers…This article raises questions about the challenges to promote safer sex among women who solicit multiple partner sex, but who do not embrace the identity of ‘prostitute’ or ‘Commercial sex worker’ Pdf 83 kb
I was blind but now I see This is both a true story and a generic story. It recounts the experience and courage of many African women. It is a tribute to the daily acts of compassion by countless women who despite their poverty meet the needs of people infected and affected by HIV/Aids. Pdf 134 kb
Illegal immigration and trafficking in human beings seen as a security problem for Europe Based on information contributed by the Member States, Europe estimates that around 500,000 persons enter the European Union illegally every year.  Around half of this number is believed of having been assisted in some way by organized criminal groups. Pdf 30 kb

IMPACT OF HIV/AIDS ON FERTILITY IN SUB-SAHARAN AFRICA

One of the impacts of HIV/AIDS on individual women and populations in severely affected areas of sub-Saharan Africa is change in fertility levels. HIV/AIDS has influenced fertility of individual women through proximate determinants of fertility, namely, marriage, contraception, pregnancy, abortion, breastfeeding, postpartum abstinence, pathological sterility and natural fecundity. Fertility may decline in the era of HIV/AIDS because of delayed onset of sexual relations and age at first union, reduced premarital sexual relations and remarriage and increased marital resolution. Desired family size and condom use are also increased. HIV infected women experience reduced pregnancy rate and rising levels of induced and spontaneous abortion. HIV/AIDS induces sterility, increases foetal mortality and decreases frequency of sexual intercourse and production of spermatozoa. In contrast, the epidemic may increase fertility due to reduced extra marital relations, polygyny, breastfeeding, postpartum abstinence, STD prevalence and spousal separation, increased infant mortality and switching to condom use from more effective contraceptives. Examples of sites in Tanzania, Uganda and Zambia indicate that fertility has declined in populations hard hit by HIV/AIDS epidemic. However, it will take long durations of high HIV/AIDS prevalence to reduce fertility at a national scale.  
Innocence, Danger and Desire: Representations of Sex Workers in Nepal This paper explores how the category of prostitution has been socially expressed in Nepal as both foreign aid and technical support for HIV/AIDS awareness, education and prevention programmes has been concentrated and developed. Discourses related to prostitution in Nepal draw on a range of sub-texts and stereotypes related to gender, caste, class and ethnicity. Women of the Badi caste of the Mid and Far Western Regions of Nepal are highlighted in this paper as emblematic of how "the prostitute" has been framed as a deviant outsider, and a danger to the moral order, whilst simultaneously an innocent, yet subtly desirable, victim  
Inquiry into Prostitution Attempts to change laws relating to prostitution in South Australia have not, so far, been successful.  However it does not necessarily follow that the current law, most of which was inaugurated in the House of Commons by the Gladstone Liberal Government in the 1550s, is adequate. 336 kb pdf
Integrating Gender Issues into HIV/AIDS Programs One of the key lessons learned from the fight against HIV/AIDS is the need to address gender inequality, which is “a contributing factor to the epidemic and needs to be addressed in the long term.” 573 kb pdf
Integration of the Human Rights of Women and the Gender Perspective-Violence against women Report of the special rapporteur on violence against women, its causes and consequences to Bangladesh, Nepal and India on the issue of trafficking of women and girls 162 kb pdf
International accounts of woman being stoned Further to my posting earlier today in regard to the reported stoning to death of an AIDS widow in Andhra Pradesh, I can now report that  due to the efforts of two journalists in India the story has been reported today  
International Approaches to Human Trafficking: The Call for a Gender-Sensitive Perspective in International Law The illegal trade in drugs, arms, intellectual property, people and money is booming.  Like the war on terrorism, the fight to control these illicit markets pits governments against agile, stateless and resourceful networks empowered by globalization.  Governments will continue to lose these wars until they adopt new strategies to deal with a larger, unprecedented struggle that now shapes the world as much as confrontations between nation-states once did Pdf 101 kb
International Trafficking in Women to the United States: A Contemporary Manifestation of Slavery and Organized Crime Trafficking of women and children for the sex industry and for labor is prevalent in all regions of the United States. An estimated 45,000 to 50,000 women and children1 are trafficked annually to the United States,2 primarily by small crime rings and loosely connected criminal networks. The trafficked victims have traditionally come from Southeast Asia and Latin America; however, increasingly they are coming from the New Independent States and Central and Eastern Europe. Trafficking to the US is likely to increase given weak economies and few job opportunities in the countries of origin; low risk of prosecution and enormous profit potential for the traffickers; and improved international transportation infrastructures. Though it may be impossible to eradicate trafficking to the US, it is possible to diminish the problem significantly by targeted prevention and microcredit strategies in the source countries; strengthening the penalties and laws against traffickers in this country; and enhancing assistance and protections for the victims. Pdf 418 kb
Is Lack of Sexual Assertiveness Among Adolescent And Young Adult Women a Cause for Concern? Understanding young women's sexual assertiveness is critical to developing effective interventions to promote sexual health and reduce sexual risk-taking and violence. Young women's perception of their sexual rights may vary according to demographic characteristics, sexual health behaviors and victimization history.  

Kama Sutra guide to safe sex

The government in India's West Bengal State is supporting a programme that offers prostitutes an ancient solution to modern concerns about safe sex.

 

Kenyan widows fight wife inheritance

A group of 29 Kenyan women - all of them HIV positive - have formed a club to fight the culture of wife inheritance, which they blame for the spread of AIDS in the area.

 

Kenyan Women reject sex Cleanser

In some rural African villages, tradition holds that widows must sleep with the ritual "cleanser" - men who sleep with women after their husbands die - in order to be allowed to attend their husbands' funerals or be inherited by their husbands' brother or relative (another customary practice).

 

Knowledge, Perceptions, Attitudes, and Practices of HIV/AIDS-A Comparative Study of Behavior Change in Commercial Sex Workers and Truck Drivers-India This study focuses on truck drivers and rural-based commercial sex workers who either live in or pass through two districts of Tamil Nadu, Dindigul and Coimbatore.  The knowledge/perceptions, attitudes, and practices of each group are used to determine where the truck drivers and commercial sex workers are in the behavior change process using the AIDS Risk Reduction Model as a framework since it focuses specifically on HIV/AIDS. 660 kb pdf
Love, Marriage and HIV: A Multisite Ethnographic Study of Gender and HIV Risk For women in many parts of the world, the behavior that puts them at greatest risk for HIV infection is unprotected sex within marriage. This comparative ethnographic study explores how social and cultural factors influence marital and extramarital intimate relationships and examines the sexual and the HIV prevention practices of men and women engaged in building these relationships across five locations in countries at different stages of the HIV epidemic. By detailing the processes through which contextual factors shape women's risk of marital HIV infection, this study will contribute to our understanding of ways to reduce the risk of heterosexual HIV transmission.  

 

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