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“The only thing necessary for these diseases to the triumph is for good people and governments to do nothing.”

International Studies:
Africa

 
 

 

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We offer a monthly newsletter dealing with the various issues surrounding infectious diseases.  To find out more click HERE.

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2002 UN Country Team and Resident Coordinator Report, Ethiopia HIV/AIDS remains a major challenge in Ethiopia. During 2002 the UNCT conducted intensive awareness and advocacy campaigns. Through its campaigns and collaboration with other development partners the UNCT has succeeded in having HIV/AIDS incorporated in important national processes and policies.  

3 Million Nigerians Infected with HIV/AIDS

Minister for Cooperation and Integration in Africa, Chief (Dr.) Bimbola Ogunkelu, has revealed that about 3.47 million Nigerians are infected with the dreaded disease, HIV/AIDS, with one person getting infected every minute, while about 1.4 million are dead so far.

 

10-yr. Strategy for increasing Capital Flows to Africa Africa’s economic isolation has deep implications for world stability, commerce, and indeed, humanity 501 kb pdf

68% rise in AIDS Deaths Among Prisoners

THE number of HIV-infected prisoners in Namibia rose by 68 per cent from 2000 to 2001, a report released this week said.

 

2004 World Population Data Sheet Looking at the trend over that period, 14 African countries are estimated to have had a decline in their HIV/AIDS prevalence, led by Kenya and Uganda. In contrast, 24 African countries are believed to have shown either no decrease or a rise in HIV/AIDS prevalence.  

A Call For Community: Two Papers on HIV and AIDS Related Stigma in Africa

It is widely recognized that HIV/AIDS-related stigma is both widespread and a significant obstacle to the provision of effective care and prevention measures. Beyond that statement, however, little is certain in terms of how pervasive HIV/AIDS-related stigma is, what its causes are, what forms it takes and what steps can be taken to reduce or eliminate it in the many different settings in which it occurs. Indeed, it is possible that the word stigma itself is inappropriate or does not cover the full range of negative actions and attitudes that may be directed towards people living with HIV/AIDS or are otherwise identified with the disease. Pdf 486 kb
A Spatially Explicit Modelling Approach to Socio-economic Development in South Africa South Africa finds itself at a development cross road: optimism for ‘high road’ development is bisected by a wasteland of poverty and overpopulation. Intervention policies are largely ‘faith-based’, even in the face of rising uncertainties surrounding population growth, HIV/Aids and resource availability.  Added to this are the complexities of disparate spatial development and social scenarios, mass urbanization and immigration. Pdf 223 kb

Addressing HIV-related Stigma and Discrimination in Africa

By focusing on the community and its institutions - health facilities, the workplace, schools, and religious groups - as the basis for analysis, ICRW and its partners will gain an understanding of those factors that perpetuate or mitigate stigma and create barriers to HIV prevention, care, and support efforts. The CHANGE Project/Academy for Educational Development (AED) will use the research findings to develop pilot interventions that minimize these barriers.

 

Addressing HIV-related stigma and resulting discrimination.

From the beginning, the HIV/AIDS epidemic has been accompanied by an epidemic of fear, ignorance, and denial, leading to stigmatization of and discrimination against people with HIV/AIDS and their family members.

Pdf 53 kb

Adolescents through the Lifecourse: Variation in Cultures of Sexuality and Risk in Rural South Africa Within the context of South Africa’s severe HIV epidemic, young people face a disproportionate risk.  With more than 10% of those aged 15-24 infected, the epidemic impacts heavily on this age group.  Factors associated with heightened sexual risk in young people include women having an older partner, multiple partnerships, especially for men, and inconsistent condom use. Pdf 194 kb
Adult Mortality in the Era of HIV/AIDS: Sub-Saharan Africa The strong age-specific impact of HIV on mortality is reshaping the population structure of African countries with substantial epidemics.  The survival of adults in the worst effected countries is substantially reduced which will eventually depopulate certain tiers of the age pyramid, reducing the number of adults available to reproduce, and this together with the impact of HIV on fertility itself, will substantially alter the age distribution of severely impacted African populations for many decades to come Pdf 611 kb

Advocacy for Action on Stigma and HIV/AIDS.

In the AIDS context, stigma is most simply defined as negative thoughts about a person or group based on a prejudiced position.  The ‘undesirable differences’ and ‘spoiled identities’ that HIV/AIDS related stigma causes do not naturally exist, they are created by individuals and by communities.

Pdf 516 kb

African AIDS: Impacts of Globalization, Pharmaceutical Apartheid, and Treatment Activism Worldwide, but especially in Africa, a disproportionate number of infections occur in late teenage and young adult years.  Although HIV/AIDS in African affects both men and women, women how have a higher overall infection rate than men, and women contract the virus at a munch younger age, 5-10 years earlier, because of numerous co-factors, including cross-age sex between younger teenage women and older, already infected men, the effects of young age and STD’s on vaginal susceptibility to viral transmission, and lack of power of younger women to negotiate safer sex practices. 385 kb pdf

Africa AIDS testing problems--Bangui

The headline figures are horrible: almost 30 million Africans have HIV/Aids. But, says Rian Malan, the figures are computer-generated estimates and they appear grotesquely exaggerated when set against population statistics

 

Africa: The Socio-Economic Impact of HIV/AIDS It is at the level of the family and community that the fullest impacts of the HIV pandemic is unraveling.  One such ramification is AIDS related poverty among households.  Across the African continent, the most vulnerable people are the most economically active.  As these active people die, families are struggling to cope not just emotionally, but also economically.  Poverty is increasing as bread-winners die and scarce savings are utilized in the period of ill health.  As savings dwindle, families begin to fragment economically.  One implication of this fragmentation of families is the rising numbers of orphan children on our continent. Pdf 1104 kb
African Microenterprise AIDS Initiative- Preventing the spread of HIV/AIDS by empowering women in Africa Disadvantaged African women require both economic empowerment and HIV/AIDS education to significantly reduce their susceptibility to the HIV virus.  Their lack of resources and understanding constrains them to high-risk sexual behavior  

African Women Acting Together Against HIV/AIDS

 

The chaotic pandemic of HIV/AIDS continues to have a devastating impact on African women, young people and children. It became the principal economic, social, cultural, political and religious issue influencing daily life in Africa. The tremendous impact and the rapidity of the spread of HIV/AIDS have changed the African’s view on the pandemic. Long gone is the time when many were in denial of the disaster. Today, everyone in Africa knows that denying the reality of the evil doesn’t save human lives. Pdf 1183 kb
Age and AIDS: a Lethal Mix for South Africa’s Crime Rate Barring a miracle whereby an inexpensive cure is found for AIDS, the coming decades will be harsh on South Africa.  AIDS will decimate the country’s pool of young workers, and place substantial pressure on an already overburdened public health system.  Decreasing levels of productivity and a reduction in the country’s gross national product will follow.  The disease is also hitting South Africa at the worst possible time when the number of juveniles as a proportion of the general population will be at a high point.  This, and the resulting surge in the number of orphans, will create a sustained upward pressure on crime rates throughout the country 173 kb pdf
AIDS, Economics and Terrorism in Africa After years of denial, there is now little debate about the economic impact of AIDS in countries with high prevalence rates.  AIDS kills people in the most productive years of their lives and leads to dramatic increases in private and public health care spending while tax revenues decline.  Foreign investors are less likely to invest in areas with high HIV prevalence because AIDS decimates human capital and reduces public investment in education. 158 kb pdf
AIDS & child labour in Zambia-assessment This study complement rapid assessments…These studies, which address the complex relationship between health issues and exploitative labour, shed light on new dimensions of children’s sufferings. 436 kb pdf
AIDS & the Workplace: forging innovative business responses Businesses throughout Africa, Asia, Latin America and the rest of the world are increasingly recognizing that HIV infection and AIDS can affect productivity and profitability 293 kb pdf

AIDS and Violent Conflict in Africa

 

No where is the picture as bleak as in sub-Saharan Africa: mo re than 25 million Africa ns infected with HIV/AIDS (70 percent of the world’s cases) and 17 million dead; on its current trajectory, by 2010 the disease will decrease life expectancy on the continent to levels found at the beginning of the last cent u r y. These most recent data far surpass the most pessimistic predictions about the effects of the disease in Africa made just five years ago  

AIDS and Violent Conflict in Africa

 

New reports are beginning to describe the full extent of this African tragedy. One study ("AIDS Poverty Reduction and Debt Relief: Implications for Poverty Reduction" by UNAIDS and the World Bank, March 2001) has found that HIV-induced declines in gross domestic product (GDP) levels in sub-Saharan Africa are severely undermining poverty reduction efforts in developing countries. According to the report, the pandemic is shaving off up to two percent of annual economic growth in the worst affected countries. Some countries will see their gross national product (GNP) shrink by up to 40 percent within 20 years. On the whole, the study suggests, Africa's income growth per capita is being reduced by about 0.7 percent per year because of HIV/AIDS. Another study concludes that by 2010, per capita income in South Africa, Africa's most robust economy, will drop by 7-10 percent while the GDP will be 17 percent lower than it would have been without AIDS pdf 139 kb
AIDS and AFRICA a Gender Driven Catastrophe This level of spending becomes all the more criminal when it is clear that many countries spend more on their military than on the fight against AIDS. "By it's own figures the Zimbabwean government spends seventy times the amount that goes to HIV programs on its support of the war in the Congo-a conflict with no direct implications for Zimbabwe."  
AIDS…Hidden Crisis In Arab, Islamic Countries As the number of AIDS patients has risen to a surprising - yet alarming - levels in Arab and Islamic countries over the last few years, many take the blame for the shortcomings to deep-rooted reticence about discussing the epidemic and reluctance of unscrupulous governments and apparently conservative societies to admit it.  

AIDS in South Africa: Why the Churches Matter

 

South Africa has the world’s second largest AIDS epidemic (in gross numbers). Its neighbor, Zimbabwe, ranks first. During the past ten years, while AIDS has come under control in central African countries with far fewer resources, the disease has gone out of control in South Africa, in the richest, most cosmopolitan nation in the whole sub-Saharan region. An estimated 10 million South Africans, out of a population of approximately 40 million, will die of AIDS during the next ten years.  
AIDS is cutting African life spans In AIDS-ravaged parts of southern Africa adult mortality is higher than it was 30 years ago, the World Health Organization said Thursday.  
AIDS/HIV IN SIERRA LEONE: THE KILLER IS ALREADY IN OUR MIDST NOW, at last, we can openly discuss it. HIV/AIDS is no longer a taboo subject in Sierra Leone. There are believed to be tens of thousands of our citizens carrying the HIV/AIDS infection. It is conservatively estimated that in 1999 over 8,000 people died from full-blown AIDS. Now we are told that a significant proportion of recruits in the new Sierra Leone army and large numbers of former and possibly current members of the peacekeeping ECOMOG/UNAMSIL contingents in Sierra Leone were, or are, carriers of HIV. Some people have speculated further that a similar situation exists among the rebel army and in rebel held areas.  
African Media Women Professional, HIV/AIDS and the Cultural Factor This report is of a presentation and recommendations.  The main objective of this seminar was to examine the cultural, professional and social constraints media women professionals encounter in Africa within their traditional environment…the seminar aimed to determine the impact of reporting on HIV/AIDS in specific contexts in Africa and to in order to determine whether the way HIV/AIDS treated in the media contributes to intensifying or reducing the stigmatization of people living with AIDS 1342 kb pdf
AIDS pandemic reduces lifespan by 20 years The full scale of the devastation wreaked on Africa by the Aids epidemic was revealed in the World Health Organization’s annual report yesterday.  
AIDS Sunset Gives Way to New Dawn in Uganda Aids was supposed to destroy Uganda. So why is it flourishing again? Billions will be spent on powerful anti-Aids drugs for the third world - but Uganda reversed its Aids epidemic without them  

AFRICA AT THE CROSSROADS: AIDS

In this the education sector as a whole has failed and failed dismally. The failures are numerous - the national department has failed to place AIDS firmly within the curriculum. Teacher unions and associations have failed to address AIDS as a serious subject for inclusion in their practice. Parents have failed in demanding that the schools fulfil their most basic function - to prepare our children for the future. Many of the non state schools have failed for they have on the whole (erroneously) believed that AIDS would not affect them as their children are 'not like that' and have an 'innocence' which needs to be preserved.

 

Africa Embraces Anti-retroviral Therapy

Whenever the issue of using drug therapies to treat AIDS in Africa came up in the last decade, many people argued that it couldn't be done there.

 

African Perspectives on HIV/AIDS South Africa Discussion Session

The initial discussion was around the question in what ways is it necessary to address the HIV/AIDS epidemic in Africa differently from HIV/AIDS in the rest of the world?

 

Africa's men meet challenge of fighting HIV/AIDS

"Iraq does not harbour weapons of mass destruction. Africa does, and it is called HIV," says popular South African comedian Pieter-Dirk Uys. "What's killing us is the secret, not talking about AIDS. Silence kills."

 

AIDS Activists Condemn Police Action

South Africa's Treatment Action Campaign (TAC) on Monday condemned the government's response to peaceful protestors demanding a national HIV/AIDS treatment plan

 

Aids activists lose patience with allies

The National Association of People Living with HIV/AIDS (Napwa) turned its guns on its allies as the hunger strike by several of its members ended dramatically this week. They were arrested after they allegedly forced entry into the Pharmaceutical Manufacturers’ Association’s offices in Midrand outside Johannesburg.

 

AIDS Activists to Launch Protest

South African Aids activists said yesterday they would start a nation-wide civil disobedience campaign to try to force the government to provide life-prolonging anti-retroviral drugs.

 

AIDS Analysis-Africa 1 

AIDS and poverty: the links

491 kb pdf

AIDS Analysis-Africa 2

Anglo American’s new AIDS strategy: seeking to provide anti-retrovirals to miners  

288 kb pdf

AIDS Analysis-Africa-3 

New AIDS strategy

  310 kb pdf

AIDS & Communication Issues.

Presentation at the VIII Communication For Development Roundtable—Nicaragua

Pdf 95 kb

AIDS and Democracy in Southern Africa

Report on a two day workshop set out to consider the lineages between HIV/AIDS and democracy

104 kb pdf

AIDS & Development-case studies - conceptual Framework.

The shape and form of an epidemic reflect the economic, political and cultural characteristics of any society.  Ifg the causes and consequences of the epidemic are to be addressed, a new conceptual framework is required

Pdf 71 kb

Aids Awareness Games in Bimbilla

The Christian Children's Fund of Canada (CCFC), an NGO, is using the medium of sports and quiz competitions to spread the message of HIV/AIDS among the youth.

 

AIDS Impact Model (AIM) Approach

Toolkit for building political commitment for effective HIV/AIDS policies and programs

774 kb pdf

AIDS in Ethiopia

The rapid expansion of the HIV/AIDS pandemic in sub-Saharan Africa has rendered efforts in bringing about significant improvements in economic and social conditions extremely complex

437 kb pdf

Aids in Kenya: The social and economic impacts of AIDS

One of the worst impacts of AIDS deaths to young adults is an increase in the number of orphans. We define an AIDS orphan as a child under the age of 15 who has lost the mother to AIDS.

 

AIDS is cutting African Life Span to 30-year Low

In AIDS-ravaged parts of southern Africa adult mortality is higher than it was 30 years ago, the World Health Organization said Thursday.

 

AIDS need not wipe out millions

The mortality figures released this week by Statistics South Africa are a timely warning about our lifestyle as a nation.

 

AIDS on Adult Mortality in South Africa. This report is a chilling reminder of how powerful stereotypes across society have colluded in creating the most explosive epidemic in the history of our country.   Comprehensive, powerful and rigorous as these data are, they can be seized upon positively by individuals, government and society to intervene at many levels such that no South African person, family or community has to live under the cloud of this vicious and unrelenting epidemic 503 kb pdf

AIDS on Children.

This report analyses the socio-economic impacts of HIV/AIDS on children in Uganda, with specific focus on their health, education and social welfare, and on the current and future policy/program responses in the field of prevention, treatment and mitigation.

235 kb pdf

AIDS Pandemic Reduces Life Expectancy in Africa by 20 years

The full scale of the devastation wreaked on Africa by the Aids epidemic was revealed in the World Health Organisation's annual report yesterday. Life expectancy in some African countries has fallen by 20 years in the past decade, mainly due to the HIV/Aids crisis.

 

AIDS prevalence numbers in Africa-2003

In this study published in AIDS, the authors found an extremely high prevalence of HIV among young women (34%) and men (9%) aged 14-24 years from a township in the Carletonville district of South Africa. HIV prevalence among women aged 24 was 66%, one of the highest rates ever reported in a general population.

AIDS ravages landlocked kingdom of Swaziland

The landlocked African kingdom of Swaziland is believed to have the world’s highest rate of HIV, with almost four out of 10 adults infected with the virus which causes Aids.

AIDS Task team about to Complete Its Work

Cabinet says the team tasked with investigating resource implications for providing anti-AIDS drug to people living with HIV/AIDS in South Africa, is about to complete its work.

 

AIDS Threatens SME

The future success of Small and Medium Enterprises (SME) and the livelihood of many South Africans could soon be off the economic radar screen if business fails to deal with the destructive HIV/AIDS threatening the SME.

AIDS to Hit Workforce in '03

South Africa's economy will be hard hit in 2003 as hundreds of thousands of HIV-infected workers develop full-blown Aids, and few companies have prepared for this.

 

 

We offer a monthly newsletter dealing with the various issues surrounding infectious diseases.  To find out more click HERE.

AIDS, economics & Governance in SA key issues.

In the review it was noted that many gaps existed in the literature, and that there was a generally poor understanding of crucial issues that inform impact, policy and response.

Pdf 710 kb

Aids, Hunger, Terror Threaten World Security

Even as the world gears up for another major world conflict the UN says world security is threatened not only by the crises currently dominating the headlines but by AIDS, hunger and the "dreams of obscure vengeance" from political terrorists "whose only achievements are the sudden screams of innocent people."

AIDS IN SIERRA LEONE: THE KILLER IS ALREADY IN OUR MIDST

NOW, at last, we can openly discuss it. HIV/AIDS is no longer a taboo subject in Sierra Leone. There are believed to be tens of thousands of our citizens carrying the HIV/AIDS infection. It is conservatively estimated that in 1999 over 8,000 people died from full-blown AIDS. Now we are told that a significant proportion of recruits in the new Sierra Leone army and large numbers of former and possibly current members of the peacekeeping ECOMOG/UNAMSIL contingents in Sierra Leone were, or are, carriers of HIV.

AIDS-related stigma among adolescents in Botswana.

There exists little or no research at all dealing with the investigation of how people living with HIV/AIDS or suspected of having HIV/AIDS are perceived and treated in Botswana because of their illness.

Pdf 75 kb

Allies of AIDS-Among warring factions in Congo, disease is mutating

Uganda-It was born out of war, spread in war and may now be mutating into an explosive nightmare amid war. HIV, soldiers, rape and prostitutes: These are the elements that spawned and spread Africa's horrendous AIDS epidemic.

 

Allocating HIV-Prevention Resources: Balancing Efficiency and Equity

The primary goal of HIV prevention is to prevent as many infections as possible. This requires allocating HIV prevention resources according to cost-effectiveness principles.

96 kb pdf

Allocating HIV-Prevention Resources: Balancing Efficiency and Equity   The primary goal of HIV prevention is to prevent as many infections as possible. This requires allocating HIV prevention resources according to cost-effectiveness principles.  

An analysis of the policies, pronouncements and programmes on HIV-related stigma and discrimination in Nigeria 

(Large report-increased down-load time)

More than two decades into the HIV/AIDS epidemic, stigma and discrimination against people who have HIV/AIDS (PLWH)1 or are affected by HIV continue unabated. Although the global pandemic has shown itself capable of triggering responses of compassion, solidarity and support, bringing out the best in people, their families and communities yet stigma and ostracism, repression and discrimination continue to be reported in both the rich developed and poor developing countries of the world.

 

ANGOLA: Enthusiastic caregivers and silent sufferers Fear of stigmatisation in Angola is keeping people living with HIV/AIDS in hiding. Caregivers are more than willing to help but are having a hard time finding patients to take care of.  
ART and Impaired Presenteeism Among Kenyan Agricultural Workers Power Point Presentation 399 kb
As Hunger Stalks Southern Africa, HIV/AIDS is the Price Women Pay

The high HIV/AIDS infection rate is exacerbating the food crisis, according to a recent Food and Agricultural Organisation (FAO) report. Subsistence farmers, who make up the bulk of most countries' populations, are struggling to produce enough food to survive.

"The disease is no longer a health problem alone, but is having a measurable impact on food production, household food security and rural people's ability to make a living," the report said.
 

ASSA AIDS and Demographic Models

(Large report-increased download time)

This guide begins with an overview of modelling of the HIV/AIDS epidemic in South Africa, which is presented in section 2. Section 3 provides information on the structure of the model. It comprises a brief description of the nature and basis of the assumptions, the location of different aspects of the model on the worksheets, and information about which assumptions and values can be changed by the user.

 

Assessment of Kenyan Sexual Networks Historically, the ethnic Somalis that constitute the majority of Kenya’s North Eastern Province (NEP) have been largely isolated from other regions in Kenya, both cultually and geographically. One benefit of this isolation was that their traditional Islamic practices, nomadic pastoral lifestyle, and remote location kept them relatively untouched by the HIV epidemic affecting the rest of the country. But in recent years, new technology such as mobile phones, increasing road traffic between provinces, shifting cultural practices and norms, and population changes are working together to change the way all Kenyans interact, including the residents of NEP. Pdf 362 kb

Assessment of trends in Child Mortality-Tanzania.

Comparing the results of the TRCHS 1999 with the TDHS 1996 suggests that child mortality in Tanzania has increased.  Yet, five-year trends within the TRCHS suggest the opposite

Pdf 95 kb

Assessment of Kenyan Sexual Networks: Analysis of the data showed no particular socioeconomic pattern among the most-at-risk individuals. They are scattered throughout both the urban and peri-urban areas of Garissa and include university graduates and men and women with no education, students, civil servants, business people, day laborers, and the unemployed. The diversity of most-at-risk groups means that they are not isolated or insulated; the virus could pass easily to the general population unless effective behavior change programs target a broad audience. 345 kb pdf
Baseline survey of sexually transmitted infections in a cohort of female bar workers in Mbeya Region, Tanzania Our study shows that prevalences of STI and HIV are very high among female bar workers in Mbeya Region. Taken together with the data on high risk behaviours—for example, low prevalence of reported condom use with both regular and casual partners, these findings reveal a largely unmet need for interventions supporting behaviour change and effective STI care for female bar workers and their male clients in order to reduce the transmissions of STI and HIV and the negative health and social impact of untreated infection.  

Benghazi epidemic

Beshkov elaborates that in-hospital infections and in particular those caused by blood-transmitted agents such as microbes and viruses have been recorded as far back as the early 20th century when the mass use of syringes started. The first recorded case of an in-hospital infection dates to the year 1917 when in England during the treatment of soldiers for syphilis they were infected with malaria. This is the first documented epidemiological outbreak caused by an in-hospital infection.

 

Bipartisan Legislation to combat Worldwide HIV/AIDS Threat

A bipartisan coalition of House members, including the chairman and ranking Democrat on the House International Relations Committee, today introduced a comprehensive five-year response to the growing worldwide threat from HIV/AIDS, malaria and tuberculosis.

 

Borderline Slavery-child trafficking in Togo This report documents the trafficking of children in Togo, in particular the trafficking of girls into domestic and market work and the trafficking of boys into agricultural work.  They are recruited on false promise of education, professional training and paid employment…if they escape or are released, denied the protections necessary to reintegrate them into society. 8,395 kb pdf

Botswana, the Bushmen/San, and HIV/AIDS

The catastrophic HIV/Aids pandemic in southern Africa threatens even its most vigorous economy, Botswana. But it is displacement and dispossession that create the greatest vulnerability to HIV. And it may be that rights to land and a people's level of confidence in their own identity are a central means of protection against ravaging illness

 

Building African AIDS Care from the Ground Up

Outside of Africa, one country has already turned political will and momentum into a reality and, in doing so, has energized the international AIDS community to act more boldly in Africa. Brazil stunned the world in 1996 by mandating universal access to free antiretroviral agents as part of its national AIDS program. To provide such access, Brazil not only negotiated reduced drug prices from pharmaceutical companies but also decided to make generic versions of some antiretroviral drugs domestically.

 

Cabinet Urges Unity in Fight Against AIDS

The government task team investigating a comprehensive antiretroviral treatment plan for HIV/AIDS sufferers would complete its work within weeks, cabinet said yesterday.

 

Call to Move AIDS Council

Members demanded to know why the National Aids Control Council operated under the office of the President.

 

Can Africa handle AIDS drugs? 

Twenty years after HIV was discovered by scientists, the rich countries seem to have come around at last to the idea of funding a global campaign, and nowhere needs greater help than sub-Saharan Africa.  But a US pioneer of HIV/Aids research, Professor Robert Gallo, has suggested to the BBC that "throwing drugs" at that region could be a recipe for disaster.  

 

Carefree Nurse Frustrates Health Delivery System

Botswana health officials have been testing 170 primary school children for HIV, after a nurse on February 20, threw the country's health delivery system into despair, by using the same syringe to immunise the children against childhood diseases.

 

Causes & Consequences of HIV/AIDS in Africa .

Presentation by Professor Alan Whiteside Director of the Health Economics and HIV/AIDS Research Division—Durgan

Pdf 1,199 kb

Changing the Burden of Disease in Southern Africa 

Discussion around President Mbeki’s recent AIDS panel has focused on his decision to include the views of “HIV dissidents” including Peter Duesberg and others, who maintain that HIV is benign.  “African AIDS,” according to Duesberg, “is caused by malnutrition, parasitic infection and poor sanitation.

 

Children, HIV/AIDS and Communication in South Africa

The basic principle of this report is that children’s rights should be monitored in a holistic and systematic fashion

173 kb pdf

Children, AIDS & Communication in SA-bio list.

To provide insight into issues related to communication of HIV/AIDS to children in the 3-12 year age group, with an emphasis on South Africa

Pdf 147 kb

Christianity and Islam in Africa's Political Experience: Piety, Passion and Power

Relations between Islam and Christianity can be conflictual as they currently seem to be in parts of the Nile Valley, or competitive as they seem to be in East Africa, or ecumenical as they have often been in countries like Tanzania. Christianity and Islam are in conflictual relations when hostilities are aroused, and the two great religions re-enact in Africa a shadow of the Crusades. Christianity and Islam are in competition when they are rivals in the free market of values and ideals, scrambling for converts without edging towards hostility  
CODE OF GOOD PRACTICE
 ON ASPECTS OF HIV/AIDS
 EMPLOYMENT
South African Practice- The Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) and the Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) are serious public health problems which, have socio economic, employment and human rights implications.  It is recognised that the HIV/AIDS epidemic will affect every workplace, with prolonged staff illness, absenteeism, and death impacting on productivity, employee benefits, occupational health and safety, production costs and workplace morale.  
Community Home-Based Care Over 95 percent of People Living With HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) live in lower-income or developing countries. Nearly two-thirds of PLWHA globally live in sub-Saharan Africa, and Asia is catching up at an alarming pace.  As the number of PLWHA increases, the gap continues to widen between the demand for, and availability of, health care services. Relying on the strengths of family and community networks, Community Home-Based Care (CHBC) has emerged as an effective method of providing cost-effective, compassionate care to those infected and affected by HIV/AIDS. Pdf 581 kb

Community Home-Based Care for People and Communities Affected by HIV/AIDS

(Large file-Increase download time)
A Handbook for Community Health Workers Pdf 8096 kb
Community Home-Based Care for People and Communities Affected by HIV/AIDS A Comprehensive Training Course for Community Health Workers-Trainer’s Guide Pdf 410 kb

Community Mobilizing Tool launched-Botswana

"The interactive tool will empower our people with the knowledge they require to make informed lifestyle decisions that could limit their risk of HIV infection or reinfection, and to help them understand the roles of ARV therapy and the importance of adherence to this
therapy,"

 

Company actions on HIV/AIDS in the Durban Metropolitan Area

HIV/AIDS is a concern within the corporate sector. Whilst many large corporation have embarked on ambitious plans and implemented strategic programes to mitigate the impact HIV/AIDS will have on their workforce others have been left defenseless through lack of resources

1,280 kb pdf

Comparative analysis-India & Uganda.

From the moment scientists identified HIV/AIDS, social responses of fear, denial, stigma and discrimination have accompanied the epidemic

Pdf 209 kb

Condom use, power and HIV/AIDS risk: sex-workers bargain for survival in Johannesburg This paper focuses on factors that affect sexual decision-making including safer sex practices.  In moving beyond approaches that emphasize women’s ‘powerlessness’ in sexual negotiation, this article focuses on ways in which sex-workers capitalize on clients’ reluctance to use condoms in sexual exchanges Pdf 220 kb
Considerations and Recommendations in Undertaking Population Projections for South Africa Intended to Assess the Impact and Consequences of HIV / AIDS This paper discusses the use of population projections for South Africa in estimating the future demographic impact of HIV/AIDS. These issues raised apply to projections generally and to projections of the impact of HIV/AIDS in other countries. A focus of this paper is examination of the assumptions underlying projections and assessment of the robustness of the projections to violations of these assumptions. Pdf 279 kb

Contraceptive Use Dynamics-Kenya.

Contraceptive use is a dynamics process, women initiate and stop contraceptive practice in response to changes in their own circumstances and in their social and health environment, and they choose different methods at different points in their lives.

Pdf 884 kb

Contributions of non formal education to HIV preventive education in Nigeria: Case study and inventory of NGO practices This paper is concerned with the need to address the fact that with over 5% of the population of Nigeria infected with HIV, and the adult mortality rate continuing to rise, Nigeria is now at a potentially explosive stage of the epidemic. In particular it is concerned with the role of Non- Formal Education (NFE) in combating the spread of HIV/AIDS. Pdf 667 kb
Cost-effectiveness of HIV/AIDS interventions in Africa: a systematic review of the evidence Cost-effectiveness is, however, highly relevant.  African governments fact difficult choices in striking the right balance between prevention, treatment, and care, all of which are necessary to deal comprehensively with the epidemic.  Reductions in drug prices have raised the priority of treatment, though treatment access is restricted. Pdf 115 kb
Costs of Care and Support South Africa . There is a long incubation period between initial infection with HIV and the onset of illness, followed by death from AIDS.  The consequence for management of the epidemic is that while South Africa may be approaching the peak of HIV prevalence, the levels of illness and death are still increasing and, therefore, the demand for care and support of HIV/AIDS infected and affected people is also increasing 54 kb pdf

Costs & results of Information Systems for monitoring , health sector reform-Tanzania.

Our overall aim was to answer the question: Can we better equip managers to make decisions about the use of new M&E assets, or assist them if they chose to re-allocate existing human and financial resources.

Pdf 1,071 kb

Counting the cost of HIV in Southern Africa A study by the International Monetary Fund warns that health services in southern Africa are already over-stretched. The current cost of providing health services to HIV patients’ accounts for a very large proportion of total health expenditure for most countries in the region. As the number of AIDS patients increases, the situation will deteriorate.  
Criminal Charges Against Pfizer for Illegal Human Experimentation in Africa THE Federal Government yesterday filed fresh charges against Pfizer International Incorporated (PII), accusing seven of the company’s top officials of fraud and criminal breach of trust of its controversial drug test, popularly known as Trovan Clinical Trials, it carried out on Nigerian citizens in Kano in 1996, which had fatal results.  

Dead reckoning--the need for data on mortality rates in Africa

In general, the availability of data for the study of mortality in Africa has improved during the last five years, but there are still large gaps. For example, there are little data on mortality in two of the most populous countries, the Democratic Republic of Congo and Ethiopia. Generally, more data are available on child mortality than on adults.

 

Determinants of South African Women’s Demand for New Barrier Methods and their Distribution: Analysis of a Discrete Choice Experiment Power Point Presentation 391 kb
DIE, THE BELOVED COUNTRIES: HUMAN SECURITY AND HIV/AIDS IN AFRICA The altered conception of “security” and the introduction of its “human” angle specifically in the post-Cold War context implies cogent reassessments of issues pertaining to sustainable development and international politics. HIV/AIDS is one such an issue that has and will continue to have a significant impact on the dynamics of “who gets what, where, when and how” in Southern Africa. This article addresses the socio-political impact of this disease in the region, using “human security” as the conceptual looking glass through which to ascertain the causes and effects of the unfolding disaster. This is achieved by focusing specifically on the implications for demographic, food, political and macro-economic security, and the effect this has on governments’ ability to provide essential services. The article concludes by enjoining specifically political and other social scientists to redouble their intellectual efforts at analysing and addressing the origin, prevalence and social consequences of HIV/AIDS. Pdf 78 kb
Discriminatory Attitudes and Practices by Health Workers toward Patients with HIV/AIDS in Nigeria Nigeria has an estimated 3.6 million people with HIV/AIDS and is home to one out of every 11 people with HIV/AIDS worldwide. This study is the first population-based assessment of discrimination against people living with HIV/AIDS in the health sector of a country. The purpose of this study was to characterize the nature and extent of discriminatory practices and attitudes in the health sector and indicate possible contributing factors and intervention strategies. The study involved a cross-sectional survey of 1,021 Nigerian health-care professionals (including 324 physicians, 541 nurses, and 133 midwives identified by profession) in 111 health-care facilities in four Nigerian states.  
Destabilizing Impacts of HIV/AIDS The impacts of HIV/AIDS on the critical infrastructures that sustain the security, stability, and viability of modern nation-states are manifold.  In much of the developing world, particularly in Africa, HIV/AIDS is undermining education and health systems, economic growth, micro enterprises, policing and military capabilities, political legitimacy, family structures, and overall social cohesion. 217 kb pdf

Dirty Needles Blamed for HIV Spread

Children in South Africa are being infected with HIV through dirty needles, experts have claimed.

 

Disentangling HIV and AIDS Stigma in Ethiopia, Tanzania and Zambia This project, conducted from April 2001 to September 2003, unraveled the complexities around stigma by investigating the causes, manifestations and consequences of HIV and AIDS-related stigma and discrimination in sub-Saharan Africa. 1134 kb pdf

Doctors urged to support Disobedience Campaign 

Medical doctors on Thursday were encouraged to support a civil disobedience campaign to lobby for the creation of a national HIV/Aids treatment plan.

 

Domestic Workers and AIDS Discrimination

After being tested for HIV without her knowledge, she was told that her services as a domestic worker were no longer needed.

 

Double trouble: South African study on dual HIV infections highlights super infection risk

Researchers from the University of Cape Town have found further evidence suggesting that patients who become infected by more than one strain of HIV prior to seroconversion (antibody formation) are more likely to progress rapidly to AIDS.

 

Early Infant Diagnosis of HIV through Dried Blood Spot Testing

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Without treatment, an infant infected with HIV in Africa has a 35 percent chance of dying by his first birthday and a 53 percent chance of dying before the age of two. But if the baby receives prophylactic antibiotics, such as cotrimoxazole, soon after birth and Antiretroviral Therapy (ART) as soon as is medically indicated, he has a good chance of surviving childhood and living a long, healthy life. Pdf 1474 kb

Economic aid, HIV/AIDS and Nigerian Churches 

Before embarking on this discourse, I must say that most foreign aids are not aids in the real sense of the word since most of the allotted money (or material) never makes it into the intended country. Moreover, there is an "unspoken politics" involved in foreign aids.

 

Economics of HIV/AIDS impact Mitigation: Responding to Problems of Systemic Dysfunction and Sectoral Capacity

The adverse economic impact of HIV/AIDS is becoming increasingly evident. In high-prevalence countries the growth rates of groos domestic product are slowing down, the manpower losses in key sectors are mounting, the number of orphans is increasing and household poverty is deepening

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Economic Impact of AIDS in Africa. Consensus in the international community has grown over the past two years that HIV/AIDS poses a threat to development, security, and economic growth.  A few studies over the last ten years have looked at the impact on workers and their employers 91 kb pdf

Employment rules South Africa

The rights of employees are paramount in our legislation and termination of employment by either dismissal or retrenchment is not taken lightly.

 

Encuesta Nicaraguense de Servicios-Nicaragua.

 

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Ensuring Justice for Vulnerable Communities in Kenya Kenya has ratified major international treaties that guarantee the rights of people living with HIV and AIDS to nondiscrimination, to protection from violence, and to access to voluntary, affordable, and quality medical treatment. Kenya has also undertaken to protect the rights of those at high risk of HIV infection, such as women, whose vulnerability to HIV is fueled by violence, discrimination, and harmful customary practices. The rights of those affected by the epidemic, including orphans and vulnerable children, are also guaranteed by human rights treaties ratified by Kenya. In practice, however, these rights mean little without access to timely and affordable legal services on the part of Kenya’s most vulnerable citizens. Pdf 1474 kb
Epidemiological and demographic HIV/AIDS projections: South Africa South Africa is recorded to have the largest number of persons living with HIV/AIDS in the world…The data are collected from pregnant women who attend antenatal clinics in the public health sector. 164 kb pdf

Ethiopia.

Monitoring and Evaluation of HIV/AIDS/STD - Ethiopia

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Ecumenical HIV/AIDS Initiative in Africa After two decades, HIV/AIDS has become a global emergency with far-reaching effects. Today, there is no country that has been left unscathed by the Epidemic. It affects all countries including Cameroon socially, economically, spiritually and culturally. HIV/AIDS threatens development and human security.  
Expenditures on HIV/AIDS in Cote d’Ivoire This study analyses the expenditures on AIDS in Cote d’Ivoire in relation to total health care expenditures; the source of funding for treatment, prevention, and activities to mitigate the impact of AIDS; and the determinants of these funding patterns. 29 kb pdf

Examining AIDS in SA-ordinary SA.

Examining the AIDS epidemic through the eyes of ordinary South Africans

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Faith-based HIV work doing more harm than good, says African church leader There was recognition among the religious leaders that one of their biggest challenges comes from those who use the language of faith or the doctrine of the church to preach that HIV is a punishment from God and that the use of condoms is a sin.  The head of the Lutheran World Federation, Bishop Mark Warner, said the church had to understand that the prohibition on the use of condoms was exacerbating the disease rather than preventing it. Abstinence as the only form of prevention was not viable when discussing HIV prevention, he said. Churches must realise that the use of condoms in fighting HIV is not contrary to our moral teaching, said Bishop Warner.  

First nationally representative survey HIV prevalence.

  Survey results

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Gay men and their wives Charles Onyango-Obbo presents the argument that a more liberal policy on gays can bring them into the fold of treatment and advice campaigns relating to HIV and because so many gay men live double lives, actually many women - their wives and girlfriends - will benefit from this change in policy  

Gendered representations of HIV/AIDS and the reproduction of hegemonic discourses on femininity in media images

 

In the South African context, the media has tended to seize on the most sensational moments of this focus and often reproduced (albeit inadvertently), as the academic literature itself has, problematic representations of women. The following paper draws on visual representations of HIV/AIDS and violence against women, over 5 months of the Mail and Guardian, a progressive weekly newspaper in South Africa, as a snapshot of how HIV/AIDS is currently represented, particularly with respect to women and gender relations. The pictures utilised in this presentation aim to demonstrate the way in which popular representations not only reproduce traditional constructions of women as passive, helpless victims in the realm of HIV, violence and sexual relations, but also highlight the way in which women are inadvertently stigmatised and blamed for the epidemic. Furthermore, the images illustrate the continued processes of 'othering' which also reflects racist and classist discourses in the construction of HIV/AIDS.  

Getting people to the pills: Transport costs, socio-economic status and reasons for defaulting from antiretroviral treatment in public sector clinics in South Africa

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Power Point Presentation 4387 kb
Government's Plan to Deal with HIV/AIDS With prevention critical in this regard because there was yet no known cure for AIDS, it said surveys confirmed a high level of awareness amongst South Africans and the young in particular.  

Government to Give Guidelines On Aids Prevention

GOVERNMENT is to issue free teacher-pupil guidelines on HIV/AIDS to primary schools in two months' time,

 

Guidelines for Monitoring & Evaluations-Tanzania. To enable a better linking of traditional and behavioural data for monitoring trends in HIV prevalence, procedures for implementation of 'second generation' surveillance are introduced. 62 kb pdf

Guidelines for Preparation and Execution of Studies of the Social and Economic Impact of HIV/AIDS

HIV/AIDS is now widespread in much of the developing world. Because it results in exceptional levels of illness and death in the mature adult population it has many social and economic implications

193 kb pdf


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