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“The only thing necessary for these diseases to the triumph is for good people and governments to do nothing.”

International Studies:
Africa


  

 

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HEALTHY DEMOCRACIES? The potential impact of AIDS on democracy in Southern Africa Social scientists are only beginning to understand the range of potential impacts the HIV/AIDS pandemic may have on Southern African societies. Belatedly, researchers began compiling evidence about the demographic, economic and social impacts of the disease on infected people, their households and communities, national populations and national economies. They have only recently begun to develop propositions about the impacts of HIV/AIDS on the broader processes of governance. However, the implications of the pandemic for the survival and consolidation of democratic government, in particular, remain largely unexamined. This paper attempts to systematise emerging thinking about the various economic, social and political consequences of HIV/AIDS in the context of political science's best available knowledge about the factors that lead to the consolidation of democracy.  
Heterosexual transmission of HIV in Africa: an empiric estimate For more than a decade, most experts have assumed that more than 90% of HIV in African adults results from heterosexual transmission.  In this exercise, we show how data from studies of risk factors for HIV can be used to estimate the proportion from sexual transmission, and we present our estimates Pdf 139 kb
HIV and Mortality in Africa-Does it prove that HIV causes AIDS? In a British-funded study, it was found that mortality in young (13-44) adults in Uganda is 60 times higher for HIV-seropositives than for seronegatives. Mainstream AIDS scientist present these results as a strong evidence that HIV is the cause of AIDS. Such arguments are very persuasive to public and most scientists, even though being essentially flawed  

HIV and AIDS Surveillance

Surveillance is the ongoing and systematic collection, analysis, interpretation and dissemination of health data, the process of describing and monitoring health events

1,110 kb pdf

HIV and Sexual behaviour among Young A national survey of 15-24 year olds from South Africa 1,393 kb pdf
HIV Associated Opportunistic Infections in Ethiopia Power Point Presentation  

HIV Mandatory Test May Lead to False Security

MANDATORY testing may lead to false security in the military that an HIV/AIDS free environment has been created

 

HIV/AIDS Beyond Africa: Managing the Financial Impacts

The spread of the HIV/AIDS4 epidemic has been an ever-present feature of world news since the first case of the disease was reported in the US in the early 1980s. Over the past twenty years, extensive research has been undertaken to understand the dynamics of the disease, its impact on society and, increasingly, its potential implications for economic growth. However, while a great deal has been written on a macro level (for example, itspotential impact on GDP), less attention has been focused on the ways in which HIV/AIDS can affect global financial markets or specific company performance.  
HIV/AIDS Beyond Africa: Managing the Financial Impacts HIV/AIDS shares some of the characteristics of other diseases, such as a time lag between illness and consequent AIDS death (on average 6-10 years), an extended period of morbidity, and the way in which onset can be influenced by general health levels, and nutritional and sanitary conditions. However, in our opinion, two main factors set HIV/AIDS apart: (1) the time lag between infection and illness, when the disease can be unidentified yet contagious; and (2) the fact that it primarily affects people in the prime of their lives (15-49 year olds). These specific characteristics mean that if left to spread unchecked, we believe AIDS can hinder the successful economic development of countries and the profitability of companies, as it strikes at the heart of working-age members of society. Furthermore, a delayed economic and social impact arises as a result of children losing their parents, and being deprived of basic parenting as well as being forced to leave school prematurely without basic skills Pdf 796 kb
HIV/AIDS: Does it Increase or Decrease Growth in Africa? Cross-country regressions for the 1990-97 period suggest that HIV/AIDS has reduced the rate of growth of Africa’s per capita income by 0.7 percentage points per year…..Through such channels the HIV epidemic was transformed from a health issue into an economic disease that impairs economic and social development.  Because it prevents an increasing share of the population from participating in economic growth, the HIV/AIDS epidemic increases poverty.. Pdf 246 kb
HIV/AIDS: Social Science and HIV/Aids Policies in Africa This paper explores the strengths and weaknesses of the three main explanations for this difference, the cultural explanation, the dependency explanation and the rational choice explanation. Pdf 533 kb
HIV/AIDS and child labour in South Africa: A rapid assessment This study investigated the link between HIV/AIDS and child labour in South Africa, covering selected towns and rural areas.  It covers: AIDS orphans, Family integrity, HIV/AIDS awareness among child respondents, School dropouts, and Hazardous work conditions 644 kb pdf
HIV/AIDS and the Workforce Crisis in Health in Africa: Issues for Discussion This paper summarizes the key issues confronting human resources (HR) in the health sector in sub-Saharan Africa and the role that HIV/AIDS has played in exacerbating this crisis. Section I reviews the causes and consequences of this crisis. Section II focuses on the effects of the HIV/ AIDS epidemic on the crisis. Section III analyzes the constraints faced by recent health initiatives in addressing HR issues. Finally, Section IV provides recommendations on how donors and other partners can address HR issues in a more intensive, sustained, and concerted manner Pdf 312 kb

HIV/AIDS and child labour in Zambia 

This rapid assessment examined correlations between the HIV/Aids pandemic and child labour in Zambia, and subsequently on the welfare of children in terms of their health, education, etc.

 

HIV/AIDS epidemic ravages Africa The report describes both a "prevention gap" between the advanced countries, where infection rates are leveling off or declining, and the poorest countries of Africa and Asia, and "a looming divide" between countries where rates of AIDS deaths are falling and countries where they are rising.  
HIV/AIDS and Human Rights in Nigeria While people living with HIV/AIDS deal with the medical impact of HIV/AIDS, their status may result in or be a consequence of social and economic factors, including human rights.  The links between health and human rights are complex and multidirectional.  Human rights violations often increase people’s vulnerability to HIV infection particularly for women, young people, and other marginalized groups. Pdf 150 kb
HIV/AIDS in Africa The HIV pandemic continues to pose major challenges in the world of work and African society at large. Nearly 34 million people are currently living with HIV/AIDS, and one-third of these are young people between the ages of 10 and 24. Sub-Saharan Africa is the most affected. More than 11 million Africans have already died, and another 22 million are now living with HIV/AIDS. Nearly 10 million more deaths are expected by 2005. Among the HIV-infected globally, six out of ten men, eight out of ten women, and nine out of ten children live in Africa  
HIV/AIDS in Africa The Economic Impact of HIV and AIDS in Southern Africa.  The major concerns to businesses in areas where HIV prevalence is high are reduced productivity and increased costs.  List of reasons 784 kb pdf

HIV/AIDS in Africa: The impact on the World of Work - 2000 Report

AIDS threatens every man, woman and child Africa today. The pandemic: is the most serious social, labor and humanitarian challenge of our time.

660 kb pdf

HIV/AIDS in Southern Africa: Background, Projections, Impacts, and Interventions The virus that causes AIDS has already infected and is infecting many Africans.  About 20 percent of the entire adult population aged 15-49 is currently infected in nine southern African countries.  This is a staggering level, and most of these people do not even know they are infected…and the disease threatens the social and economic well being of the countries. 242 kb pdf
HIV/AIDS in Sub-Saharan Africa: The Growing Epidemic? UNAIDS notes that ‘circulating in Southern Africa has been the hope that the epidemic may have reached ins ‘natural limit’, beyond which it would not grow.  Thus, it has been assumed that the very high HIV prevalence rates in some countries have reached a plateau.  Unfortunately, this appears not to be the case yet. 91 kb pdf
HIV/AIDS Interventions in Female Sex Worker Population in Southern Africa Countries “Sex workers need to be seen as more than their sexual behavior—as women who need to have their emotional, economic, and physical needs addressed.”  To improve the chances of successfully communicating HIV prevention messages to this population, then, it is necessary to investigate and understand their feelings, beliefs, hopes and dreams, and the thinking that goes into daily decisions they have to make. 433 kb pdf

HIV/AIDS profile in the provinces of South Africa 2002

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This booklet presents a concise set of basic indicators on HIV/AIDS in the country…Model estimates should be treated with circumspection since there is always a degree of uncertainty surrounding such estimates.  There is still a great deal to understand about the dynamics of this epidemic and the provincial version of the ASSA model is provisional at this stage.  However, models play an extremely important role in understanding possible trends in variables that   to measure Pdf 2393 kb

HIV/AIDS Threatens SME

The future success of Small and Medium Enterprises (SME) and the livelihood of many South Africans could soon be off the economic radar screen if business fails to deal with the destructive HIV/AIDS threatening the SME.

 

HIV/AIDS, Economics and Governance in South Africa: Key Issues in Understanding Response

The HIV/AIDS context in South Africa is rapidly changing, Close attention was paid to economic impacts and responses, with an emphasis on impacts

710 kb pdf

HIV/AIDS, Lagging Policy Response and Impact on Children: the Case of Cote d’Ivoire

AIDS has become the leading cause of mortality among adults and one of the first in children, and the mortality associated with the disease has reduced life expectancy at birth from 65 years to 55 years in 2000

590 kb pdf

HIV-Aids Can 'Empty' Country in a Decade

"The fight against HIV-AIDS is not an easy thing! The figures released last week by five of Namibia's biggest municipalities, regarding the effect of this pandemic will have on their activities by 2020, were nothing less than terrifying,"

 

HIV-Rape Trial takes a Break THE High Court's first trial under the Combating of Rape Act in which a suspect faces the allegation that he knew he was carrying the AIDS virus when he raped a woman is set to continue early next month.  

How African doctors make ends meet: an exploration

This paper is an attempt to identify individual coping strategies of doctors in sub-Saharan Africa. It also provides some indication of the ‘effectiveness’ of these strategies in terms of income generation, and analyses their potential impact on the functioning of the health care system. It is based on semi-structured interviews of 21 doctors working in the public health sector in sub-Saharan Africa and attending in 1995 an international Master’s course in Public Health in Belgium or in Portugal. Pdf 271 kb
How AIDS kills Africa's battered women You can learn about condoms, know that fidelity or abstinence can protect you from Aids, but if your husband is HIV-positive, violent and wants sex, there is not a whole lot you can do.  
How Does Educational Attainment Affect the Risk of Being Infected by HIV/AIDS? Rates of return to education, as traditionally calculated, only account for labor market earnings.  It is though, however, that education may increase people’s life expectancy.  This paper tests this hypothesis in the context of the HIV/AIDS epidemic in Africa. Pdf 1583 kb

How does HIV/AIDS affect African businesses?

For African businesses to attract new investors, they must demonstrate a competitive advantage. In much of Africa, businesses already have a competitive advantage because labor is abundant, affordable, and productive. Countries inevitably compete against one another to attract investors. In turn, investors seek to locate their businesses in a country that has the most productive, lowest-cost workforce. There are several mechanisms by which HIV/AIDS affects the international competitiveness of African businesses

 

How Does HIV/AIDS Affect African Businesses? For African businesses to attract new investors, they must demonstrate a competitive advantage. In much of Africa, businesses already have a competitive advantage because labor is abundant, affordable, and productive. Countries inevitably compete against one another to attract investors. In turn, investors seek to locate their businesses in a country that has the most productive, lowest-cost workforce. There are several mechanisms by which HIV/AIDS affects the international competitiveness of African businesses: Labor Supply, Profitability, other Impacts Pdf 544 kb
Human rights approach to AIDS prevention. The Southern African Development Community’s Code on HIV/AIDS and Employment 426 kb pdf
I was blind but now I see This is both a true story and a generic story. It recounts the experience and courage of many African women. It is a tribute to the daily acts of compassion by countless women who despite their poverty meet the needs of people infected and affected by HIV/Aids. Pdf 134 kb
Iatrogenci means  transmission of infectious diseases To investigate and compare seven types of injection devices for their risks of iatrogenic transmission of bloodborne pathogens and their economic costs in sub-Saharan Africa  
Impact of HIV/AIDS on saving behaviour in South Africa In the analysis of the implications of HIV/AIDS on the Southern African economy, several microeconomic impact papers exist to assess the consequences of the epidemic.  They generally focus on the economic implications of the virus…and do not observe the link between households and HIV/AIDS. Pdf 149 kb
Impact of AIDS on Older People in Africa The main focus of the project is to "identify barriers that prevent older people from providing adequate & fulfilling care to their children dying from HIV/AIDS & subsequently, to their orphaned grandchildren".  
Impact of AIDS on South Africa . It is vitally important to recognize that diagnosis and classification of a disease in medicine is based on the exponential summation of discriminating characteristics from four components: medical history, clinical signs, laboratory investigation and response to treatment. 434 kb pdf
Impact of HIV/AIDS on Children-Uganda This report analyses the socio-economic impacts of HIV/AIDS on children in Uganda, with specific focus on their health, education and social welfare, and the current and future policy/program responses in the field of prevention, treatment and mitigation 235 kb pdf
Impact of HIV/AIDS on the different farming sectors in Namibia

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It begins with the impact of HIV/AIDS on the social structure in the farming communities and is followed by the impacts on labour and income, land ownership and the health and psychological well-being of affected households including school-age children in schools. Findings on the impact of the epidemic on crop and livestock production, community coping mechanisms and strategies for increasing labour productivity are also covered.  
Impact of Faith-based organizations. Recently faith-based organizations have generated increasing interest as agents for preventing and mitigating the HIV/AIDS epidemic 503 kb pdf
Impact of HIV/AIDS on Agriculture and the Private Sector in Swaziland Swaziland has one of the highest prevalence of HIV/AIDS in the world. The excess morbidity and mortality due to the disease has wide ranging socioeconomic implications for the national economy and the various sectors. HIV/AIDS leads to destruction of social capital, weakening of institutions and deepens poverty. The demographic impact and resultant reduction in labour force; and associated income changes will have significant effects on society and 115 the economy. Households, the community, the national economy and business firms, will not escape the impact. Pdf 535 kb

IMPACT OF HIV/AIDS ON FERTILITY IN SUB-SAHARAN AFRICA

 

One of the impacts of HIV/AIDS on individual women and populations in severely affected areas of sub-Saharan Africa is change in fertility levels. HIV/AIDS has influenced fertility of individual women through proximate determinants of fertility, namely, marriage, contraception, pregnancy, abortion, breastfeeding, postpartum abstinence, pathological sterility and natural fecundity. Fertility may decline in the era of HIV/AIDS because of delayed onset of sexual relations and age at first union, reduced premarital sexual relations and remarriage and increased marital resolution. Desired family size and condom use are also increased. HIV infected women experience reduced pregnancy rate and rising levels of induced and spontaneous abortion. HIV/AIDS induces sterility, increases foetal mortality and decreases frequency of sexual intercourse and production of spermatozoa. In contrast, the epidemic may increase fertility due to reduced extra marital relations, polygyny, breastfeeding, postpartum abstinence, STD prevalence and spousal separation, increased infant mortality and switching to condom use from more effective contraceptives. Examples of sites in Tanzania, Uganda and Zambia indicate that fertility has declined in populations hard hit by HIV/AIDS epidemic. However, it will take long durations of high HIV/AIDS prevalence to reduce fertility at a national scale.  
Influence of the Church in Bringing About Change "Ignorance, stigmatisation and discrimination have long characterised the attitude of both church and government toward HIV-positive persons and AIDS patients," says Rev Angela Veii, Coordinator of Lutheran Unity in Namibia.  

In AIDS Cities, Education Increases Condom Use, Cuts Sexual Activity

A longitudinal study by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention indicates that education efforts in eight major cities have boosted condom use and decreased sexual activity among high school students.

 

Kenya High Court Orders AIDS Orphanage and Government to Try to Work Out Problems with HIV Kids in State Schools  
Kenya. Like in many other developing countries the outbreak of AIDS was received with shock and panic. 85 kb pdf
Kenya: A Country of Graves Twenty-one years ago, the first case of AIDS was reported. Since that time, AIDS has become the most devastating disease humankind has ever faced. The World Health Organization has estimated that, since the epidemic began, more than 60 million people have been infected with the virus. Of those infections, 80% have occurred in Africa, and 90% of these infections have occurred in Sub Saharan countries. HIV/AIDS is now the leading cause of death in Sub-Saharan Africa. World-wide, it is the fourth biggest killer.  
Kenya-"High Court Orders AIDS Orphanage and Government to Try to Work Out Problems with HIV Kids in State Schools" The largest AIDS orphanage in Kenya took the government to court over the refusal of several Nairobi elementary schools to allow HIV-positive orphans to attend class.  
Kenya-Monitoring and Evaluation, Country Case Study Like in many other developing countries the outbreak of AIDS was received with shock and panic…the Government’s reaction at the beginning was denial and purposeful under-reporting of the true magnitude of the disease 85 kb pdf
Kenya: US Ideology hurting women and families Seven clinics supporting safe abortion and offering post-abortion care have closed down following withdrawal of funding by the US government. The Bush administration has stopped funding totalling about Sh76 million (one million US dollars) to the Family Planning Association of Kenya and Marie Stopes International-Kenya for their support to family planning services that support the rights of the woman to procure safe abortion and receive post-abortion care services.  
Kenyan widows fight wife inheritance A group of 29 Kenyan women - all of them HIV positive- have formed a club to fight the culture of wife inheritance, which they blame for the spread of AIDS in the area.  
Kenyan Women reject sex cleanser In some rural African villages, tradition holds that widows must sleep with the ritual "cleanser" - men who sleep with women after their husbands die - in order to be allowed to attend their husbands' funerals or be inherited by their husbands' brother or relative (another customary practice).  

Kibaki Forms HIV/Aids Cabinet Team

"Ladies and gentlemen, the complexity of the Aids pandemic is enormous. It causes serious social dislocation, affects all aspects of society, lowers production in all sectors and impoverishes our communities.

 

Kibaki to Launch Ministry Campaign Against HIV/Aids

The campaign, dubbed Total War on HIV/Aids and spearheaded by the Ministry of Health, aims at influencing Kenyans to change their sexual behaviour. It targets religious organisations, the youth, people in the transport industry and teachers.

 

KING OF SWAZILAND DESCRIBES A ‘NATION OF DYING’ AS GENERAL ASSEMBLY
"My people are dying," King Mswati III of Swaziland told the special 
session of the General Assembly on HIV/AIDS this morning.  "They 
are dying before their time, leaving behind their children as orphans, 
and a nation in a continuous state of mourning.  A quarter of all 
Swazis are already infected with the virus that causes AIDS and we 
cannot avoid an escalating tragedy of truly frightening proportions."
 

King's Polygamy Remarks Condemned

King Mswati III has once more become embroiled in controversy, this time over statements he made that the custom of polygamy did not contribute to the spread of HIV/AIDS, contradicting studies that have established a connection.

 

Know Your Rights!

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This Handbook provides a brief overview of the main health care rights in Rwanda. It is not meant to be a definitive text. Instead, its purpose is to provide a tool for educating people affected by HIV/AIDS and others about their basic legal rights, and for empowering people to take action to resolve legal problems they may face. Pdf 4767 kb
Knowledge of AIDS and HIV Risk-Related Sexual Behavior Among Nigerian Naval Personnel
Nigeria's HIV epidemic continues to grow, and Nigerian military 
personnel are at increased HIV risk. While the sexual risk-related
 behavior of Nigerian police has been studied, less is known about 
their naval counterparts. The current study describes the knowledge 
of AIDS and sexual risk behavior of naval personnel stationed in 
Lagos, Nigeria.
 
Lagging policy. AIDS has become the leading cause of mortality among adults and one of the first in children, and the mortality associated with the disease has reduced life expectancy at birth from 65 years to 55 years in 2000. 590 kb pdf
Liaisons fueling AIDS in Africa Teenage girls are at the very center of one of the most heart-breaking scenarios now playing out in many parts of Africa. Young girls have up to 6 times the rate of HIV infection as boys of comparable ages.  
Macroeconomic Impact of HIV/AIDS in Ethiopia In this paper, a small macroeconomietric model of Ethiopia is used to simulate the macroeconomic impact of HIV/AIDS in Ethiopia.  The model is set up in aggregate demand and supply framework and the individual equations in the model are estimated in an ECM format using the Jobansen approach in view of the time series properties of the macro-time series variables.  The simulation result shows that the prevalence of HIV/AIDS has a negative impact on the overall economy through lowering the active labour force.  The decline in the labour force has a direct negative impact on both the  output of the agricultural and non-agricultural sectors that would lead to the fall in private consumption, investment, exports and government tax revenue.  The slow down of the economy would also be strengthened with the fall in imports due to the decline in exports and hence the shrinking down of the importing capacity. 200 kb pdf

MAPPING OF EXPERIENCES OF ACCESS TO CARE, TREATMENT AND SUPPORT – KENYA (2006)

The research was carried out in Homabay (rural) and Kibera community (urban) involving women and men living with HIV and AIDS (13th December 2005 - 31st January 2006). Data was gathered through questionnaires and focus group discussions (FGDs). Women who participated in the focus group discussions were aged between 22 – 45 years old and in total 100 people took part in the project, including questionnaire respondents. The service providers in both sites were of varied age group (28-45 years) and both female and male service providers participated in the focus group discussions. Results from the mixed sex and service provider focus groups are presented here but the main emphasis is on the results from the women only focus groups.  
Men as Partners: South African Men Respond to Violence Against Women and HIV/AIDS In South Africa, like in many parts of the world, men all too often act in ways that contribute to a variety of public health problems such as domestic and sexual violence, sexually transmitted infections, spiraling rates of HIV/AIDS, and high rates of maternal and infant mortality. 1121 kb pdf
Men of Quality are not afraid of equality To share experiences of each organization highlighting their strategies for engaging men within the pandemic in regards to behaviour change, caring,  and active community responsiblity 2619 kb pdf
Men should think not about what we stand to lose but what we stand to gain "Besides deep changes in society, what we need is a deeply spiritual
transformation in the identity of men."
 
METHODS FOR MODELING THE HIV/AIDS EPIDEMIC IN SUB-SAHARAN AFRICA An understanding of the magnitude and trajectory of the HIV/AIDS epidemic, as well as the uncertainty around these parameters, is critically important both for planning and evaluating control strategies and for preparing for vaccine efficacy trials. Particularly as efforts mount to make new technologies more widely available in the developing world, tradeoffs among different potential interventions and other critical policy decisions must be based on the best possible information on the current levels and trends in the epidemic. Unfortunately, population-based epidemiological data are extremely limited in sub- Saharan Africa. Incidence data in representative study samples are rare due to the difficulty of direct measurement of population incidence and the high costs and long follow-up periods required for cohort studies. AIDS notification data represent only a fraction of new cases of AIDS and are subject to the problems of reporting delays. Information on HIV/AIDS-attributable mortality is also essential to assessments of the impact of the epidemic, but vital registration systems have extremely limited coverage in most of sub-Saharan Africa; other population-based information on mortality, while increasingly available for children through the Demographic and Health Surveys, for example, are relatively uncommon for adults. Pdf 57 kb
Modelling HIV/AIDS epidemics in Botswana and India: impact of interventions to prevent transmission The interventions directed at sex workers as well as those dealing with sexually transmitted infections showed promise for long-term prevention of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection, although their relative ranking was uncertain. In India, a sex worker intervention would drive the epidemic to extinction. In Botswana none of the interventions alone would achieve this, although the prevalence of HIV would be reduced by almost 50%. Mother-to-child transmission programmes could reduce HIV transmission to infants, but would have no impact on the epidemic itself. In the long run, interventions targeting sexual transmission would be even more effective in reducing the number of HIV-infected children than mother-to-child transmission programmes  
Modeling HIV/AIDS epidemics in sub-Saharan Africa using seroprevalence data from antenatal clinics To plan and evaluate control strategies effectively and to prepare for vaccine efficacy trials, it is critical to estimate the magnitude and trajectory of the HIV/AIDS epidemic.  Trade-offs between alternative interventions and policies must be based on the best possible information about current levels and trends in the epidemic. 384 kb pdf
Modern Marriage, Extramarital Sex, and HIV Risk in Southeastern Nigeria For women in Nigeria, as in many settings, simply being married can contribute to the risk of contracting HIV. This ethnographic study examines how modern marriage, despite appearances of greater gender equality, places many women in positions where they cannot easily confront their husbands’ infidelity or protect themselves from HIV infection. Male extramarital sexual practices are situated in socioeconomic and cultural contexts, showing how the social organization of infidelity is located at the intersection of economic inequality, aspirations for modern lifestyles, gender disparities, and contradictory moralities. It is people’s anxieties about sexual morality and social reputation in the context of seeking modern lifestyles -- rather than immoral sexual behavior and traditional culture – that exacerbate risks produced by poverty and inequality. Pdf 324 kb
Monitoring and Evaluation of the HIV/AIDS/STD-Ethiopia It is assumed that no part of the country is unaffected by the virus, though the magnitude of the epidemic differs from region to region and from urban to rural. 36 kb pdf
Monitoring and Evaluation of the HIV/AIDS/STD-Kenya, Tanzania, and Zimbabwe A review of articles appearing in the major newspapers in a country is likely to provide an indication of the importance placed on issues and events discussed in those articles and prevalent attitudes toward them 490 kb pdf
Mortality rates rising in Africa In fact, on the African continent today, there are two notable trends: a rise in mortality across all ages, and a decrease in the fertility rate. Africa, although it may still be attaining an incremental rise in population at rates below 2% per annum, is heading towards a net decrease in population  
Mounting anomalies in the epidemiology of HIV There is substantial dissonance between much of the epidemiologic evidence and the current orthodoxy that nearly all of the HIV burden in sub-Saharan Africa can be accounted for by heterosexual transmission and the sexual behaviour of Africans. The mounting toll of HIV infection in Africa is paralleled by a mounting number of anomalies in the many studies seeking to account for it.  
MP Says Government should save babies from HIV An opposition parliamentarian says if Government can afford bailouts of N$1 billion for Air Namibia it should be in a position to spend a few thousand dollars to save unborn babies whose mothers are HIV-positive  
“My husband has many girlfriends”:-The political economy of male infidelity and married women’s HIV risk in Uganda Married women’s greatest risk for HIV infection is from their husbands’ extramarital liaisons. This article examines the socio-economic context that shapes men’s extramarital sexuality. Based on six months of ethnographic research in southeastern Uganda, this paper demonstrates how the intertwining of (1) HIV messages of ‘be faithful’, (2) new discourses of modern love and gender equality, and (3) monetization of the economy have driven men’s extramarital sex underground. Increased stigma surrounding polygyny and infidelity combined with mobility and migration patterns have facilitated greater secrecy surrounding extramarital relationships and a pattern of informal secondary households. Denial and secrecy surrounding extramarital sexuality have become a way for husbands and wives to manage their pubic reputations and maintain the appearance of modern marital idea. By examining geographies of secrecy and risk, this paper suggests that risk reduction must address structural factors that provide opportunities for men’s extramarital sex. Pdf 324 kb

Namibia Losing TB Battle

NAMIBIA is failing to stem the rising tide of tuberculosis (TB) cases in the country.

 

NDOAL Demonstration Project-Zambia. This report summarizes baseline and midterm findings of an intervention pilot study. 825 kb pdf
Negotiating Power and Profitability of HIV/AIDS in South Africa For many South Africans affected with HIV/AIDS, the decision to contest and resist their institutionalization has led to direct conflict with state elites and an array of public and private organizations who seek to represent them inside a neo-liberal framework Pdf 562 kb
NEPAD-Working Document

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Human development has been one of the most serious casualties of the poverty, social exclusion and marginalisation of and lack of sustainable development in Africa. The health problems facing Africa are rooted in this context, as are the potential health benefits of a broad human development strategy  
New Plan to Help Africa in Its Fight Against AIDS Dubbed "Celebrate Life Centres", the concept involves using containers to supply drugs and food to communities in far-flung areas. "The beauty of the containers," says former National Aids Council chairman Abdullah Mohammed, "is that they can move from one place to another."  

Nedlac to broach HIV/Aids plan

The executive management committee of the National Economic Development and Labour Council is to meet on Friday to reopen discussions on the national treatment plan for HIV/Aids.

 

News: SOUTH AFRICA: Questions about new prevalence survey Several prominent demographers and scientists have vigorously refuted Health Minister Manto Tshabalala-Msimang's claim that South Africa's HIV epidemic is declining and that the country "may be making some real progress in its response to the HIV epidemic".  

Nelson Mandela to be Honored

Offering viewers a historical look at Mr. Mandela's life, the special will also profile several young people from diverse backgrounds who will travel to Johannesburg to meet Mr. Mandela and discuss topics with him such as HIV/AIDS awareness, discrimination, war, and more.

 

Nevirapine distribution sites to increase

The number of sites distributing nevirapine to HIV-positive pregnant mothers in Mpumalanga would increase to 55 by early next year, premier Ndaweni Mahlangu announced on Friday.

 

NIGER: Food crisis drives young women to sell their bodies Ide can have sex with Mariam, a novice on the Niamey night scene, several times for only two or three dollars. "The most important thing for her is having something to put in the cooking pot the next day," he said. Mariam is among a wave of young women recently taking to the streets of the Niger capital to sell their bodies to buy food for their families.  
Nigeria: New Study Reveals Discrimination by Health Professionals Against People Living with HIV/AIDS is Fueled by Fear of Infection, Lack of Protection While the majority of Nigerian health care professionals comply with ethical obligations and do not deny care or treatment to People Living With AIDS (PLWA), a disturbing number of health care professionals engage in discriminatory behavior toward treatment and care of PLWA, according to a new study released today by Physicians for Human Rights (PHR). Health care professionals also reported engaging in practices that are against international and Nigerian codes of professional ethics including testing without consent and disclosure of confidential medical information without permission.  
Nigerian Teens Flood Italy's Sex Market Nigerian women, many of them teen-agers, now make up the largest percentage of illegally trafficked sex workers in Italy. Albanian teens are now joining them. The Italian government is trying to assist them in leaving this dangerous industry.  

OYO SACA HAF 1 END OF PROJECT REVIEW MEETING

Power Point Presentation 84 kb

Overview of the Impact and Best Practice Responses in Favour of Children in a World Affected by HIV/AIDS

HIV/AIDS has more than wiped out the child mortality gains realized during the 1980s. The prospects for the future are not encouraging, as in some twenty countries adult prevalence rates and U5MR are expected to peak only around the middle of the next decade

261 kb pdf

Perceptions of Sexual Behavior and Knowledge about Sexually Transmitted Diseases Among Adolescents in Bennin City, Nigeria The participants perceived that sexual activity is common among their peers…The young people had some knowledge about STD, most went to traditional healers. They were unlikely to seek treatment from doctors because of high cost, slow service, negative provider attitudes toward young people and a perceived lack of confidentiality. Pdf 415 kb

Poor to get Aids drugs first

The impoverished community of KwaDabeka in Durban will be one of the first pilot sites to receive antiretroviral drugs at its clinic for HIV-infected patients when KwaZulu- Natal receives its R720-million grant from the UN Global Fund to Fight Aids, TB and Malaria.

 

Poverty and HIV/AIDS: Impact, Coping and Mitigation Police

Looks at the relation between HIV/AIDS and poverty and tries to say something about the relation between these 2 issues

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Preventing and Mitigating AIDS in Sub-Saharan Africa: Research and Data Priorities for the Social and Behavioral Sciences Moreover, given the chronic underreporting and under-diagnosis in developing countries, the actual number of AIDS cases may be four times as high. The official statistics also do not reflect the millions of people who are infected with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) but have yet to develop symptoms of AIDS  
Quantitative Evaluation of HIV Prevention Programs The epidemic of HIV, the cause of AIDS has led to the infection of an estimated 58 million people worldwide, 22 million of whom have already died.  HIV and AIDS have reduced life expectancies by more than 10 years in hard hit countries such as Burkina Faso and Cote d’Ivoire, and by 22 years in Zimbabwe.  The impact of this epidemic reaches beyond those directly infected with HIV.  Children with HIV-infected parents become orphans, while networks of friends and families suffer as loved ones become infected and ill.  Economies are stripped of productive participants, and scarce societal resources must be redirected from other public pursuits toward HIV/AIDS-specific activities such as medical care for HIV- and AIDS-afflicted persons. 1117 kb pdf
Recent upturn in mortality in rural Zimbabwe-evidence of an early demographic impact of HIV infection The observed increases in mortality by age, sex and cause of death were consistent with those expected early in a severe HIV-a epidemic, on the basis of mathematical model projections and observations elsewhere in Africa. Pdf 952 kb

Regional Human Development Report on HIV/AIS and Development in South Asia 2002

25 million people have now dies of AIDS worldwide and the number of deaths is certain to rise from its current level of 3 million per year

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RELIGIOSITY AND ATTITUDES ON INTIMACY Implications for the HIV/AIDS Pandemic in Central Uganda In the prevailing scholarship, especially in the west, religion is accorded little power as a source of social change. In the developing world, however, this is not the case. The potential influence of religion is still recognized and appreciated. In 1962, Reinhard (1962) maintained that Weber’s idealistic interpretation of religion was reasserting itself and that we had to seriously consider religion in our nations’ policy packages for social change and development. His discovery is no less true today than it was then. Religion has once again become a major layer in public policy and today’s power plays are greatly influenced by religious ideology. The major hypothesis of this paper is that there is a negative correlation between religiosity and premarital sexual permissiveness. This religiosity, however, is not solely based upon one’s religious membership and/or on the frequency of one’s church attendance. It has far greater impact on the daily lives of the people in Uganda. Pdf 268 kb
Role of core and bridging groups in the transmission dynamics of HIV and STIs The potential for exposure of low and high risk women to HIV and sexually transmitted infections (STI) through unprotected sex with male clients of female sex workers in Cotonou could account for most if not all of the estimated yearly numbers of HIV infections in Cotonou women (1000). As ongoing transmission of HIV, and also of the most predominant STIs such as gonorrhoea and HSV-2, appears to be largely fuelled by transmission within core and bridging groups in Cotonou, interventions targeted at both female sex workers and their male clients remain of the utmost importance and could have a significant effect on the evolution of HIV/STI epidemics in Benin.  
Rural Households’ Vulnerability to HIV/AIDS and Economic Efficiency in the Rainforest Belt of Nigeria The spread of HIV to total areas in Nigeria poses a lot of concern to policy makers due to their perceived higher vulnerability and relevance for national food security.  This study analyzed the vulnerability of rural households to HIV/AIDS and its impact on economic efficiency of food production Pdf 329 kb
Rwanda: "Marked for Death", rape survivors living with HIV/AIDS in Rwanda In April 1994, Rwanda suffered one hundred days of violence, targeted at the Tutsi and moderate Hutu population. Ten years later, the consequences of the violence have not been dealt with adequately, neither by the international community nor by the Rwandan government. Survivors of violence still cry out for medical care; survivors and families of victims clamour for justice that is slow in coming. Women continue to die from diseases related to HIV/AIDS, which some of them contracted as a result of rape during the 1994 genocide and armed conflict. Survivors of rape and their families face human rights violations that themselves lead to further and overlapping violations: survivors of sexual violence may have contracted HIV/AIDS, as a result of which they and their families often face stigma, which can in turn lead to loss of employment, difficulty in asserting property rights, and a loss of civil and political rights.  
 

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