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“The only thing necessary for these diseases to the triumph is for good people and governments to do nothing.”

 

International Studies:
Africa

 

 

 

 

 

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SA Policies Impact On Botswana The government of President Festus Mogae has real issues with Pretoria related to transformation, HIV/Aids and Zimbabwe

 

SAFETY NETS FOR CHILDREN AFFECTED BY HIV/AIDS IN SOUTHERN AFRICA The devastating consequences of HIV/AIDS on African societies, and its particular impact on children, is requiring every organisation involved in fighting the epidemic to find new strategies to address adequately both the scale of the problem and its duration. The crisis of children left behind by AIDS is a humanitarian, development and human rights challenge of unprecedented proportions.

 

‘SAVE OUR YOUTH FROM AIDS’ DRAFT PROPOSAL The impact of the epidemic both on the macro-economic (losses within the productive age groups, especially skilled, professional and hard to replace labour, the burden of a high number of patients with HIV-related diseases on the health sector) and the household and community level (death of breadwinners and high numbers of AIDS orphans) is enormous and threatens to jeopardize the country’s chances of socio-economic development.

 

Serological findings amongst first-time blood donors Blood safety remains an issue of major concern in transfusion medicine in developing countries where national blood transfusion services and policies, appropriate infrastructure, trained personnel and financial resources are lacking.

 

Sexual Behavior & Condom Use-Kenya There is a marked difference in HIV prevalence between urban areas and rural areas.  In urban areas, HIV prevalence is estimated to be between 17% and 18% while rural area estimates range from 12% to 13%.

306 kb pdf

Sexual Behavior and Condom Use in the Context of HIV Prevention in Kenya This report presents a further analysis of data on sexual behavior, condom knowledge, and condom use from the 1998 Demographic and Health Survey.

396 kb pdf

Sexual Initiation among Adolescent Women and Men: Trends and Differences in Sub-Saharan Africa The risk of unplanned pregnancy and sexually transmitted infections including HIV/AIDS may be affected by the age of sexual debut.  An individual who initiates sexual activity at age 15, will have more exposure to conception over the reproductive span than one who initiates sex at age 21

126 kb pdf

Sexually transmitted infections in male clients of female sex workers in Benin Since most STIs are asymptomatic in this population, case finding programmes for gonorrhoea and chlamydia could be useful. The performance characteristics of the LED test in this study suggest that it could be useful to detect asymptomatic infection by either C trachomatis or N gonorrhoeae in high risk men

 

Sh276 Million to Fight HIV/AIDS Prevalence "Funds allocated to various organisations - sensitising members of the public over the scourge - should be strictly put into proper use,"

 

Shadow on the continent: public health and HIV/AIDS in Africa in the 21st century Approaches to the prevention and control of the HIV/AIDS epidemic in Africa have been heavily based on early experiences and policies from industrialized countries, where the disease affects specific risk groups.  HIV/AIDS has been dealt with differently from other sexually transmitted or lethal infectious diseases, despite being Africa‘s leading cause of death

Pdf 84 kb

Sierra Leone-The National AIDS Program for HIV/AIDS According to the UN population Division, Sierra Leone’s population in 1999 was 4,717,000.  Adults, aged 15 to 49, the group most likely to engage in high-risk behavior for HIV infection, represented approximately 48 percent of the total population

41 kb pdf

Situation analysis of discrimination and stigmatization against people living with HIV/AIDS in West and Central Africa Ethical and legal considerations of those issues

1,437 kb pdf

Situation Analysis Report on STD/HIV/AIDS in Nigeria The socio-economic impact of this epidemic on the Nigerian society has not been documented but it is becoming apparent that the already fragile health care delivery system is being overloaded. There are also more reported cases of monoparental families and orphans. Furthermore the Nigerian population continues to increase at an alarming rate of 2.83% or more. Hence, the projected impact will have disastrous consequence on the population of Nigeria and ultimately of Africa and the world. Despite all these, the Nigerian populace still continues to deny the existence of the disease.

 

Social and Economic Impacts of HIV/AIDS in Sub-Saharan Africa, with Specific References to Aging This paper is a survey of current materials and references relating to the social and economic impacts of HIV/AIDS, primarily with respect to Sub-Saharan Africa, and with specific emphasis on aging and the elderly

Pdf 189 kb

Socio-economic causes and consequences of the HIV epidemic in southern Africa It has to be stressed that such research on both the causes and consequences of the epidemic needs to be timely -- the problems to be addressed are important -- but are generally everywhere under-recognised

 

Socio-economic effects of HIV/AIDS in African countries This study considers the impact on enterprises.  The most notable negative effect has been the decline in labour supply and loss in productivity because of absenteeism, while the effect on capital appears less certain.  Many of these effects are greater for small businesses that are dependent on a few key persons and therefore will be particularly vulnerable.  Foreign direct investment is likely to decline because of the economic uncertainties created by the epidemic.  Declining economic growth will mean that the demand for domestic goods will be hit.

374 kb pdf

Socioeconomic Disadvantage and Unsafe Sexual Behaviors Among Young Women and Men in South Africa Recent evidence suggests that the burden of new HIV infections in developing countries is concentrated among young people and females.  Even with knowledge of how to protect oneself from infection, such information may not always be usable in daily situations of economic and social disadvantage that characterize the lives of many young people and women in poor countries.

1132 kb pdf

Socio-economic Impact. The Socio-economic Impact of HIV/AIDS on Children in a Low Prevalence Context: the Case of Senegal

92 kb pdf

Sociodemographic context of the AIDS epidemic in a rural area in Tanzania with a focus on people's mobility and marriage This analysis focuses on how sociocultural and economic characteristics of a poor semi-urban and rural population (Kisesa ward) in north west Tanzania may directly and indirectly affect the epidemiology of HIV and other sexually transmitted infections (STI). Poverty and sociocultural changes may contribute to the observed high levels of marital instability and high levels of short and long term migration in Kisesa, especially among younger adults. Marriage and migration patterns are important underlying factors affecting the spread of HIV. The most cost-effective intervention strategy may be to focus on the trading centre in which mobility is higher, bars were more common, and HIV prevalence and incidence were considerably higher than in the nearby rural villages

 

Socio-economic impact of HIV/AIDS on households in South Africa

(Large report-increased download time)

The impact of HIV/AIDS on households was assessed by means of a longitudinal (cohort) study of households affected by the disease. The CHSR&D established a formal relationship with various stakeholders in the two study sites to facilitate the recruitment of affected households. Verbal informed consent was obtained from infected individuals to interview the households to which they belong. The household impact of HIV/AIDS was determined by comparing over time the observed trends in socioeconomic variables in HIV/AIDS households and a control group using statistical methods. For this purpose, a survey on the quality of life and the economics of affected and non-affected households was conducted.

 

Social and Economic Impacts of HIV/AIDS in Sub-Saharan Africa, with Specific Reference to Aging Knowledge about HIV and AIDS has increase at a great rate since the first significant appearance of the disease at the beginning of the 1980s.  But complicating factors have also affected distribution across populations, the way the disease manifests in certain places, and which groups are at risk.  These factors include migration/mobility, stigma, socio-cultural practices, human behavioral changes, prostitution, the absence or presence of education and awareness interventions undertaken by health, non-governmental and governmental organizations, and the prevalence rate

Pdf 189 kb

Social Context of Perception of AIDS Risk and Sexual Behaviour in Kenya While remarkable efforts are being made to minimize the spread of HIV and its impact, the AIDS pandemic has continued unabated and has claimed millions of lives the world over, particularly in developing countries and more specifically, in sub-Saharan Africa.  The rising prevalence rates and the rapid spread of HIV/AIDS suggests that the epidemic has not reached its equilibrium in most of SSA, hence the need for continued research and interventions into ways of minimizing its spread and the social and economic impact.

583 kb pdf

South Africa: Compensation for Occupational Injuries and Diseases Amendment Bill COSATU wishes to use the opportunity of its submission to Parliament’s Labour Portfolio Committee on the Compensation for Occupational Injuries and Diseases Amendment Bill ("COIDA Amendment Bill") to re-emphasise the need for effectively enforced legislation to provide for the compensation of South African workers who are injured or who contract disease in the course of their employment.

 

South Africa-forgotten schools. Right to basic education for children on Farms in South Africa

702 kb pdf

South Africa: HIV & AIDS by Age by Sex Charts and graphs concerning the AIDS epidemic

 

South Africa: Death by AIDS

Charts and graphs concerning the AIDS epidemic

 

South Africa: HIV Infection Rates

Charts and graphs concerning the AIDS epidemic

 

South Africa's HIV/AIDS rate lower than expected, but higher for whites

"The HIV prevalence among whites and coloureds clearly indicates that a dynamic epidemic is occurring in these groups and they should be consciously incorporated into HIV prevention efforts," the report found.
 

 

Southern Africa Network of AIDS Service

People living with HIV/AIDS (PLWA) continue to experience Stigma and discrimination manifested in many ways including loss of employment, education, travel, insurance, health care and other social amenities

 

South African rape victims fight HIV

Official figures suggest every year around 50,000 women are raped in South Africa.

 

SOUTH AFRICA: TOUCHED BY THE VENGEANCE OF AIDS… The South African HIV/AIDS epidemic defies description. It is characterised by three main features - a) the rapid and unchecked growth of the epidemic b) a lack of any coherent policy documents on crucial issues and c) the failure of public prevention campaigns to have an impact

 

Southern African Catholic Bishops' Conference

As the HIV/AIDS pandemic envelops sub-Saharan Africa, the impact of the disease on South African society and culture broadens.  From a lack of hospital beds to an ever increasing number of AIDS orphans, South Africa displays the symptoms of an afflicted nation.  While average adult infection rates throughout the country have temporarily stabilized, the nation grapples with the enormity of the disease.

 

SOUTH AFRICA: "Study Says Circumcision Reduces AIDS Risk by 70 Percent"

French and South African researchers have found that male circumcision reduces by about 70 percent a man's risk of contracting HIV through intercourse with an infected woman.

 

South African National HIV Prevalence, Behavioral Risks and Mass Media We have to manage the disease, or the disease will manage us. The key ingredient to managing the disease successfully is current and accurate information covering the full cultural and demographic spectrum of South Africa

2,884 kb pdf

Speaker says AIDS, HIV affect young women in Saharan Africa

Young women are affected the most by HIV and AIDS in sub-Saharan Africa, Karen Stanecki of the U.S. Census Bureau told K-State students and faculty Tuesday afternoon.

 

Stats-Adolescent sexual & reproductive Health.

The broad aim of the study is to develop a detailed understanding of the context of SRH of young people in the Peddie area and thereby to establish a knowledge base for appropriate planning and prioritization

367 kb pdf

Stigma and HIV/AIDS in Africa Review of issues and responses based on literature review, focus group discussions and Stigma-AIDS email discussion forum. This review is based on three approaches aimed at broadening the participation of key stakeholders in the development of an operational research agenda on stigma and HIV/AIDS for the East and Southern African region.

 

Surviving on the streets-Sexuality and HIV/AIDS among Male Street youth in Dessie, Ethiopia

There is no place where we can find work and we are forced to think of other undesirable alternatives which we would have previously been glad to avoid, things like theft and the like.  We are under great worry right now.

Pdf 184 kb

Swazis have sex workers covered

As awareness of the AIDS crisis breaks in Swaziland like a blinding dawn, measures that would have been unthinkable a year ago are now being initiated.

 

Swaziland's deadly cycle of hunger and Aids

Swaziland, the tiny Southern African kingdom with one of the world's most severe AIDS problems, has begun to confront the reality that the epidemic is no longer just a medical problem, but one that is wreaking economic and social devastation that threatens national survival

 

Swapo Man Proposes 'Disclosure' of HIV When Person is Buried A TOP Swapo official yesterday proposed that the globally respected norm of "no disclosure" of illness should be relaxed when it comes to HIV.

 

Tanzania.

Monitoring and Evaluation of National HIV/AIDS/STD program in Tanzania: a Case Study

84 kb pdf

THE REPUBLIC OF TAJIKISTAN Methodological guidelines for implementation of harm reduction programmes Therefore, being guided by the three-ones principle of the coordinated approach in planning, implementation and evaluation of prevention programmes, the Ministry of Health of the Republic of Tajikistan pays special attention to HR programmes implemented in close cooperation with public organisations working in the area of HIV prevention, care and support for the most at-risk and vulnerable populations.  
TANZANIA: What every bride needs to know "The training at kitchen parties is geared toward making the bride so subservient, so docile and quiet. It gives women all the responsibility to make the marriage work," said Charles Kayoka, of the Association of Journalists against AIDS in Tanzania, a group advocating greater male involvement in HIV prevention. "The intention is not bad – to make the marriage home peaceful and harmonious - but the outcome can be dangerous."  

Targeting HIV-prevention efforts on truck drivers and sex workers: implications for a decline in the spread of HIV in Southern Africa

The role of mobile populations in the spread of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) has been documented in several countries worldwide.1-4 The role of truck drivers and sex workers in the spread of HIV has been studied in Africa,5 India,6 and the USA.7 Due to the migratory nature of their occupation, truck drivers tend to have multiple sexual partners.  

 

Teacher Training: Essential for School-based Reproductive Health and HIV/AIDS Education

The AIDS epidemic has spread to the general population, with up to half of all new HIV infections occurring among youth under age 25.  Since most youth attend school at least for primary education, school-based programs are a logical place to reach young people.  Understanding the importance and techniques of teacher training in sexuality education in Africa is particularly urgent.

450 kb pdf

The AIDS epidemic in Africa is hitting farm output

"The majority of African countries worst-hit by HIV/AIDS are also those heavily reliant on agriculture"

 

The AIDS Pandemic in the 21st Century

(Large report-increase download time)

Although the full demographic impact is not expected to be felt for several more years, and perhaps will not be completely measured at the pandemic’s epicenter in Sub-Saharan Africa, the emerging downward trends in life expectancy and population growth, the distortions in age structures, and the breakdowns in support systems are already being seen in some countries.

Pdf 2123 kb

The Current and Future Impact of the HIV/AIDS Epidemic on South Africa’s Children To investigate the impacts of the HIV/AIDS epidemic upon the children of South Africa, with a focus on the health, welfare and education implications

380 kb pdf

THE DEMOGRAPHIC IMPACT OF HIV/AIDS IN SOUTH AFRICA BY PROVINCE, RACE, AND CLASS 

 

This paper presents the results of the ASSA2000 AIDS and Demographic model developed by the AIDS Committee of the Actuarial Society of South Africa. This model has been calibrated to produce results for each of the provinces separately. From this and other research only, at most, five of the provinces appear to be experiencing similar epidemics, but starting at different times, while the other four (KwaZulu-Natal, Western Cape, Northern Cape and Northern Province) are clearly experiencing different epidemics. In the no-intervention, no-behaviour change scenario the ANC clinic prevalence is expected to plateau in KwaZulu-Natal at nearly 40% while it may barely reach 18% in the Western Cape. The results also show differences in life expectancy, child and adult mortality, numbers of orphans, numbers infected, numbers of AIDS sick and numbers of AIDS deaths, by province, race and gender. Understanding why different provinces are experiencing different epidemics will go a long way to helping us identifying the forces that drive the spread of this epidemic. The paper also contains a brief analysis of the likely impact by socio-economic class.

Pdf 215 kb

The Economic Impact

The AIDS epidemic has already affected many sub-Saharan African countries, and is expected to have profound effects in South Africa over the next 20 years. By striking sexually active individuals, AIDS kills individuals during their most productive years. This impact feeds into the economy in numerous ways, including: A smaller labour force; A less productive labour force; Lower savings rates; Lower aggregate demand; Shifting expenditure towards health care

 

The Economic Impact of AIDS in Nigeria

AIDS has the potential to create severe economic impacts in many African countries.  It is different from most other disease because it strikes people in the most productive are groups and is essentially 100 percent fatal.  The effects will vary according to the severity of the AIDS epidemic and the structure of the national economies.  The two major economic effects are a reduction in the labor supply and increased costs

187 kb pdf

The Economic Impact of AIDS in South Africa

AIDS has the potential to create severe economic impacts in many African countries.  It is different from most other diseases because it strikes people in the most productive age groups and is essentially 100 percent fatal.  The effects will vary according to the severity of the AIDS epidemic and the structure of the national economies.

Pdf 251 kb

The Economic Impact of AIDS in Botswana

AIDS has the potential to create severe economic impacts in many African countries. It is different from most other diseases because it strikes people in the most productive age groups and is essentially 100 percent fatal. The effects will vary according to the severity of the AIDS epidemic and the structure of the national economies. The two major economic effects are a reduction in the labor supply and increased costs: Labor  Supply and Cost

Pdf 202 kb

The Economic Impact of AIDS in Ethiopia

Since the first cases of HIV/AIDS were reported twenty years ago, nearly 58 million people have been infected and 22 million have died. Consensus in the international community has grown over the past two years that HIV/AIDS poses a threat to development, security, and economic growth. A few studies over the last ten years have looked at the impact on workers and their employers. With momentum building to prevent new infections and treat those already afflicted, more information is needed to assess economic impacts and cost efficacy of treatments.

 

The Economic impact of AIDS in Southern Africa

Since the first cases of HIV/AIDS were reported twenty years ago, nearly 58 million people have been infected and 22 million have died. Consensus in the international community has grown over the past two years that HIV/AIDS poses a threat to development, security, and economic growth. A few studies over the last ten years have looked at the impact on workers and their employers. With momentum building to prevent new infections and treat those already afflicted, more information is needed to assess economic impacts and cost efficacy of treatments.

 

The Economic Impact of AIDS in South Africa AIDS has the potential to create severe economic impacts in many African countries. It is different from most other diseases because it strikes people in the most productive age groups and is essentially 100 percent fatal. The effects will vary according to the severity of the AIDS epidemic and the structure of the national economies. The two major economic effects are a reduction in the labor supply and increased costs Pdf 251 kb

The Experiences of Measuring and Monitoring Poverty in Ethiopia

The Ethiopian government defines poverty as multi-dimensional extending beyond the low level of income.  The first dimension is material deprivation (lack of opportunity), which is measured by an appropriate concept of income or consumption.  The second dimension is low achievement in education and health (low capabilities).  The third and the fourth dimensions of poverty are vulnerability (and exposure to risk or low level of security) and voicelessnes (and powerlessness), respectively.

284 kb pdf

The Health and Wealth of Africa

This paper focuses on the central role of health in the development process.  Africa is not only the world’s poorest continent, but also its least healthily.  HIV/AIDS is ravaging the region’s workforce and shortening average life expectancies.

98 kb pdf

The ‘healthy brothel’: the context of clinical services for sex workers in Hillbrow, South Africa

Sex workers are at considerable risk of infection from HIV and sexually transmitted infections. Public health messages provide information and skills for negotiating safer sex yet are not always realistic for women who earn a living from sex. Moreover, conventional health services often present barriers to sex workers seeking sexual and reproductive health care and treatment.

 

The Impact of a Growing HIV/AIDS Epidemic on the Kenyan Children Kenya is one of the countries worst affected by the HIV/AIDS pandemic

81 kb pdf

The Impact of HIV/AIDS in Zambia: Industry and the Public Sectors

The author notes that the impact of HIV infection on a primary industry such as mining in Zambia will be shaped by numerous factors that are different from what is known in the industrialised countries that have mining industries. He discusses the possible impact of HIV infection and AIDS on mining on the Copperbelt Province of Zambia. The findings show that the impact of HIV/AIDS on the Zambian economy is difficult to quantify. However, the mining industry will have more expenses to take care of in terms of health and social services for its miners. It was also noted that the only way to avoid this would be to recruit only those who are free from HIV and to routinely screen all miners at frequent intervals and terminate the services of all who are infected

 

The Impact of HIV/AIDS on Land Issues in Kwazulu-Natal Province South Africa

This report presents the findings of a preliminary study into the link between HIV/AIDS and land issues in customary tenure areas of KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa.  The term ‘land issues’ is understood broadly to include three main dimensions, namely land use, land rights, and land administration.

1125 kb pdf

The impact of HIV/AIDS on adult mortality in South Africa When AIDS was first wrongly linked to homosexual practice many Africans promoted the notion that homosexual practices where ‘unAfrican’, thus sowing the seeds for denial to justify why AIDS would not be prevalent in their communities.

503 kb pdf

The Impact of HIV/AIDS on the Education Sector in Southern Africa

Since the onset of the HIV/AIDS epidemic in Africa the virus has killed approximately 15 million people, and it is estimated that another 25 million people are infected, representing almost three-fourths of the world's HIV infections. AIDS morbidity and mortality is concentrated among working-age individuals, resulting in a devastating impact on human capital resources in the world's most affected countries. The education system, which is the primary mechanism for the development of the future human resources, has not been spared the effects of the epidemic. Not only are enrollments declining as AIDS orphans can no longer afford to attend school, but the loss of teachers and even education administrators to the illness is undermining the very structure of education systems in sub- Saharan Africa.

 

The impact of the HIV/AIDS epidemic on the Education Sector in Sub-Saharan Africa

It is widely accepted that the HIV/AIDS epidemic will seriously affect the education sector in Sub-Saharan Africa.  However, little systematic empirical research has been undertaken, particularly in the high prevalence countries that seeks to assess the actual and likely future impacts on the supply of and demand for educational services

Pdf 444 kb

The impact of HIV/AIDS on rural households/communities and the need for multisectoral prevention and mitigation strategies to combat the epidemic in rural areas

HIV/AIDS is no longer restricted to cities. The disease is now spreading with alarming speed into rural areas and affects the farming population, especially people in their most productive years (ages 15 to 45). However, there is also some evidence of stabilization in HIV infection rates in certain areas of East and Central Africa. In one rural district of southwest Uganda, the percentage of those aged 13 and above acquiring HIV infection each year declined from 7.5 percent in 1989-1990 to 4.5 percent in 1993. This is attributed to success in changing sexual behaviour.

 

The Impact of Structural Adjustment Programmes (SAPs) on Health Policies Of Third World Countries With A Special focus on HIV/AIDs In Sub - Saharan Africa The Caribbean And India.

Globally, the HIV pandemic has affected regional areas differently. The rates or forms of HIV transmission are arguably said to differ according to geography. In the more developed socio-economic countries, HIV transmission has occurred mainly between men who have sex with men, bisexuals and people who use street drugs intravenously. In the lower socio-economically-developed countries, HIV transmission is usually through heterosexuals, with women being the most at risk, and mother to child transmission being high.

 

The Impact on Economic Growth in Africa of Rising Costs and Labor Productivity Losses Associated with HIV/AIDS

This paper analyzes the impact of HIV/AIDS using a model of economic retrogression. Derived from reversing direction in an endogenous growth framework, the model provides a fresh perspective of the impact of HIV/AIDS on economic growth. Many analysts have now recognized that their best estimates of the effect of the epidemic have been systematically understated. What they have failed to fully account for is that the HIV/AIDS epidemic has been having a non-linear effect on economic growth. Our model incorporates this element by including the feedback to the rate of economic growth of declining savings and investment due to rising costs and falling productivity associated with HIV/AIDS.

 

The long-run Economic Costs of AIDS-Theory and an Application to South Africa

The economic costs of AIDS are almost certain to be much higher.  Not only does AIDS destroy existing human capital, but by killing mostly young adults, it also weakens the mechanism through with knowledge and abilities are transmitted from one generation to the next; for the children of AIDS victims will be left without one or both parents to love, raise and educate them

Pdf 570 kb

The Macro Implications of HIV/AIDS in South Africa-a Preliminary Assessment

The overall decline in growth performance into the contribution of the various channels.  Given our current assumptions, the largest share of the deterioration in growth is attributable to the shift in government current spending towards health expenses while an additional third stems from slower growth in total factor productivity…over the course of a decade, the implications for macroeconomic performance are substantial

Pdf 83 kb

THE MIDDLE EAST AND NORTH AFRICA

Surveillance systems are being improved in some countries and examples of positive prevention efforts are on the increase. But denial and stigma create an ideal context for the spread of HIV.

 

The politics of AIDS in South Africa: beyond the controversies

With an estimated five million people infected, South Africa has the highest number of people with HIV in the world. The most striking epidemiological fact is the extremely rapid growth in HIV seroprevalence, for example from 0.7% in pregnant women in 1990 to 24.5% in 2000, reaching 36.2 % in KwaZulu Natal. The impact on adult mortality has been dramatic. In 2000 AIDS accounted for 25% of all deaths, and mortality was 3.5 times higher than in 1985 among 25-29 year old women and two times higher among 30-39 year old men. This rapid evolution, unprecedented even on the African continent, is often seen as yet another symptom of South African "exceptionalism," a phenomenon often referred to in the social sciences

 

The Poor State of Finance in East Africa As was the case for most developing countries, in the past decade, the East African countries have all been through financial sector reforms. In the process, the financial markets have been liberalised, interest and exchange rate controls removed, the relevant legal and regulatory framework have been implemented, regulatory capacity has been strengthened, some state-owned institutions have been restructured and privatised

 

The Socio-economic Impact of HIV/AIDS on Children in a Low Prevalence Context: the case of Senegal This report analyses the socio-economic impacts of HIV/AIDS on children in Senegal as well as the impacts of the response policies implemented by the different actors

92 kb pdf

THE SOCIAL CONTEXT OF PERCEPTION OF AIDS RISK AND SEXUAL BEHAVIOUR IN KENYA

At the onset of the epidemic, research and interventions for HIV/AIDS prevention largely focused on bio-medical consequences of the disease and ignored the varying geographical, behavioural, socio-cultural, and economic contexts underlying the course of the epidemic in SSA. Similarly, previous studies predominantly targeted groups considered at high risk of HIV infection thus leaving out a large group of people potentially at risk. The diffusion of HIV/AIDS from “core groups” to the general population is evident in widespread infections among most populations of SSA countries. The increasing spread and devastating socioeconomic impact of the epidemic have stimulated a shift of research priorities from a biomedical and “core groups” focus to the societal context of sexual behaviour and HIV/AIDS.

Pdf 583 kb

The Status and Trends of the HIV/AIDS Epidemics in the World This report, co-authored by the Durban MAP Symposium participants and produced in less than 24 hours, reflects a consensus of the analysis, projections and recommendations brought forward during the symposium. Its aim is to provide information that can be used by international bodies, to briefly review the most important aspects of the history of the HIV/AIDS epidemics to date, to recognize the current status of and trends within these epidemics, and to take immediate action to affect the course of these epidemics in the future.

 

THE TRUTH ABOUT UGANDA'S SEX-ED CAMPAIGN AGAINST AIDS

The Sexuality Information and Education Council of the United States 
(SIECUS) describes the Ugandan program as a comprehensive plan 
involving both abstinence for those who wish to remain sexually inactive, 
and the use of condoms for STD prevention for those who wish to be 
sexually active.

 

The White House Initiative to Combat AIDS: Learning from Uganda

The best evidence suggests that the crucial factor was a national campaign to discourage risky sexual behaviors that contribute to the spread of the disease. Beginning in the mid-1980s, the Ugandan government, working closely with community and faith-based organizations, delivered a consistent AIDS prevention message: Abstain from sex until marriage, Be faithful to your partner, or use Condoms if abstinence and fidelity are not practiced.

 

Theft, resale of drugs to be curbed The European Commission has announced plans to stop low-cost drugs intended for African countries being illegally resold for big profits in the West.

 

Trends in HIV prevalence among pregnant women in Uganda-1991-2000

Power Point Presentation with several graphs and tables

815 kg pdf

Trends in Reproductive Health Knowledge.

Trends in family planning, maternal and child health, and knowledge and behavior among men and women of reproductive are are compared to findings from the previous 1995 UDHS.

101 kb pdf

TROUBLE IN SUB-SAHARAN AFRICA AND THE INTENDED EFFECTS OF GLOBALIZATION ON UNSUSPECTING POPULATIONS.

As never before, we are seeing a major escalation in threats of enormous "disasters", short of trouble[s], as a result of superpower nation[s] genocidal conspiracy, and that Black Africans are to face more unimaginable disasters, for we shall never be able to understand the vast implications of these terrible devastations as it passes before us if we are not extremely familiar with global master plans being orchestrated in Sub-Saharan Africa on the one hand and the evolving death to unsuspecting Black Africans/Americans on the other.

 

Two South African AIDS vaccine trials expected to begin in 2004 

The universities of Cape Town and Stellenbosch expect to start vaccine trials for HIV/Aids in 2004, a statement from the African Human Genome Initiative conference said on Saturday.

 

Uganda.

Uganda is currently experiencing a mature and generalized HIV EPIDEMIC, as evidenced by a high general population seroprevalence and a high mortality rate from HIV infection

45 kb pdf

Uganda: HIV and AIDS-related Discrimination, Stigmatization and Denial This report describes research conducted on issues of HIV/AIDS related issues in central and western Uganda in 1997-98

411 kb pdf

Uganda-domestic violence worsens AIDS  

The Ugandan government's failure to protect women from domestic violence and discrimination increases women's risk of contracting HIV, Human Rights Watch said in a new report released today

 

Ugandans Say Facts, Not Abstinence, Will Win AIDS War Such candid talk may seem astounding, but it's no wonder Florence is learning about safe sex at a tender age. She's sitting in the single-story, concrete building of the AIDS Support Organization, or TASO, holding her aunt's weak hand, cheering up yet another woman in her life who is dying from the disease.

 

'Unexplained HIV' in SA's hospitals

The children had had overlapping hospitalisation in a regional
hospital, and since 2000, several cases of unexplained HIV infection in children were reported, leading to the establishment of a registry for unexplained transmission at Tygerberg Hospital.

 

User fees: the right to education and health denied

New research demonstrates that user fees continue to deny children’s rights to basic education and health care, despite international commitments to make these services free and universal. Southern governments, the donor countries and the World Bank must now deliver on their obligations, by developing clear strategies for free education and healthcare, and mobilising the resources necessary to implement them.

 

VIRGIN SYMBOL AND BODY: CHRISTIAN AND AFRICAN TRADITIONAL BELIEFS ON SEXUALITY IN RELATION TO THE PROBLEM OF HIV/AIDS

One Sunday, I read an article that reported that more and more virgin girls are being raped by men who believe this will "cleanse" them of the disease AIDS. After finishing reading, it once again freshly daunted me that these beliefs around the symbol of virginity had actually shaped my early general education on sexuality by both my African and Christian Catholic traditions. As a uniquely embodied African Christian woman in South Africa, I have experienced my body through the learned roles and expectations from both my community (family and relatives) and Christian (Catholic) tradition, apprehended and communicated to me through the symbol of virginity. Virginity, as a symbol of purity in both my (African) culture and (Catholic) Christian tradition meant behaviour and practices fitting the image of purity, as contrasted with polluting activities. On the one hand, my mother told me that, in order to have a blessed and stable marriage I should enter into the institution of marriage in a pure bodily condition, that is, not having known any man through sexual intercourse. My Roman Catholic Sunday school teacher (who was a nun), on the other hand, instructed me that virginity is a gift of holiness from God. Basing this education in sexuality on Pauline tradition, she went on to quote St. Paul

 

War, famine and now pestilence

Large areas of Central Africa could be depopulated in the near future due to a massive death toll from West African trypanosomiasis, commonly known as sleeping sickness. The disease is spreading exponentially and is virtually out of control. In some provinces of tropical Africa sleeping sickness has become the number one cause of mortality.

 

We anticipate a drop in ADS infections WE anticipate a drop in HIV/AIDS infection, Central Board of Health (CBoH) director general Dr. Ben Chirwa said yesterday.

 

We have AIDS-access to medication & care

How can a country that cannot afford to feed its own people and assure them of food security, spend money on medication and care?

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West Cape to Provide Nevirapine to All Pregnant HIV-Positive Women Every pregnant HIV positive woman attending antenatal care in public health facilities in the Western Cape now has access to the anti-AIDS drug Nevirapine.

 

'What's so special about Aids?' The government will not elevate HIV/Aids above other diseases by giving it priority attention, says Minister of Health Manto Tshabalala-Msimang.

 

Which is the Scourge? The Debt or HIV/AIDS? Understanding the twin challenges of globalisation and HIV/AIDs is becoming an imperative for YMCA people in each of the 127 countries where the YMCA is present around the world. As we increase our knowledge and experience of the pandemic and its effects on young people, the YMCA must add its voice to the ethical and moral issues which are raised.

 

Who Gets AIDS and How? Education and Sexual Behaviors in Burkina Faso, Cameroon, Ghana, Kenya and Tanzania Power Point Presentation 107 kb
Why HIV/AIDS prevention strategies fail in Botswana: considering discourses of sexuality A phenomenological study that was carried out among five ethnic groups of Botswana revealed the importance of taking into account culturally situated sexual realities when prevention policies for HIV/AIDS are considered and implemented. Furthermore the study threw light on the ineffectiveness of the current national HIV/AIDS prevention strategy of ‘Abstain, Be faithful, or use a Condom’ (ABC), a strategy that has been externally imposed on communities, without sufficiently engaging the behavioural practices and values of the communities themselves. This paper therefore advocates educational strategies for HIV/AIDS prevention that take into consideration localised social relations and value systems. Devising policies that engage with the discourses that are dominant in each ethnic group can make a difference in a country that has been hard-hit by the HIV/AIDS epidemic  

Why is Uganda interesting?

Uganda is one of the few African countries where rates of HIV infection have declined, and it is seen as a rare example of success in a continent facing a severe AIDS crisis. Uganda's policies are credited with helping to bring adult HIV prevalence (the proportion of adults living with HIV) down from around 15% in the early 1990s to around 5% in 2001. At the end of 2005, UNAIDS estimates that 6.7% of adults were living with the virus. The country is seen as having implemented a well-timed and successful public education campaign

 

Widowhood, remarriage and migration during the HIV/AIDS epidemic in Uganda

In order for the widow to be socially integrated into the support systems, she needs four factors in her favour.  The first favour is the society with its composition and culture.  Secondly, the community within which the widow lives can help her overcome much of her sadness.  This includes a favourable neighborhood and working environment.  Thirdly the widow’s recovery from her problems depends on the support she gets from the family of her late husband whose attitude towards widowhood is an important factor.  Lastly, the personsal resources available to the widow will assist her.  These include people and groups she is associated with such as her parents, siblings, children and friends

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Women and Girls Bear the Burden in ZIMBABWE

“I first knew of my HIV status when my husband got ill. We both went for HIV testing and we were counseled and given our results. We were both found HIV positive,” recalls the 35-year-old mother of three. “My husband got worse and finally died late last year. His relatives insisted that I should be inherited by one of his brothers. This is when I decided to tell them that I was HIV positive and that my husband had died of AIDS.”

 

World Bank Approves $20 Million For HIV/AIDS Prevention And Control In Trinidad And Tobago The World Bank yesterday approved a $20 million loan aimed at reducing HIV infections and providing treatment and care for people infected with HIV/AIDS in Trinidad and Tobago. 

 

World Bank Pledges Us$50 Million to Fight HIV/Aids The World Bank has pledged US$50 million (about Sh4 billion) to fight the HIV/Aids scourge, the Government announced yesterday.  

Women and HIV/AIDS Concerns - a focus on Thailand, Philippines, India and Nepal

Women are frequently less educated than men. This disparity is critical 
because literacy rates for women are strong predictors of infant mortality 
rates and fertility decisions. Discrimination against the female gender begins 
during the pregnancy of the mother, as manifested in the high incidence of 
abortion of female foetuses. Female infanticide has been on the rise in many 
countries. Cultural preference for sons results in preferential allocation of family
 resources (food, schooling, health care) to them. Girls are allotted 
disproportionate burden of housework, which is a detriment to their self-esteem

 

WOMEN, THE HIV EPIDEMIC AND HUMAN RIGHTS:

 "We fear what our husbands may bring home." - Ugandan woman "When I was told that this disease is mainly spread by sex, I started to worry about my husband .... So long as he gave us enough money for our needs I was grateful. I could never ask questions about his girlfriends. I suppose I always expected him to have other women because he was alone in town. This is what men are like, isn't it?" - Zimbabwean woman  "As in the case of birth control pills, men will suspect women who want to use condoms of servicing other men." - Ugandan woman "The women tell us they see their husbands with the wives of men who have died of AIDS. And they ask, 'What can we do? If we say no, they'll say: pack up and go. But if we do, where do we go to?" - Miria Matembe, member of the Ugandan parliament.

 

Women's Roles and Demographic Change in Sub-Saharan Africa

The available evidence points to the need to empower women as well as men to gain access to needed resources, to make informed choices and to take effective action with respect to their reproductive and productive lives. Without such empowerment the innovations needed to lower rates of malnutrition, morbidity and mortality, to promote child survival and development are not likely to occur.

There is evidence of the ability and efficacy of women's groups in adopting and adapting innovations which have the potential to profoundly affect economic and demographic outcomes. In a number of instances in different countries in the region women in rural and traditional areas - where fatalism and pronatalism persist - have been adopting new practices, thus showing the pervasiveness of latent demand for changes which will promote family wellbeing and survival.

 

Workshop on the Status and Trends of the HIV/AIDS Epidemics in Africa

This is the final report from the IX International Conference on AIDS and STD in Africa pre-conference workshop describes conclusions reached through consensus.

Pdf 611 kb

Zambia Country Profile

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Zimbabwe-antiretroviral therapy program.

HIV/AIDS prevention, care, and treatment programs cannot succeed without a reliable and consistent supply of condoms, high quality drugs, HIV tests kits, laboratory reagents, and the consumable laboratory and medical supplies needed to support service delivery.

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Zimbabwe policies thwart PLWHA seeking help

When police arrested Monica Nzou for selling fruit on a slum corner, they taunted her about her AIDS. Nzou, 34, a shy, painfully thin street peddler and one of 700,000 Zimbabweans uprooted by a government crackdown on informal settlements, begged to be released. She had two young daughters to take care of, she told the officers. She was a widow--her husband had already died of AIDS. "They laughed and said they were going to charge me with murder for infecting my husband," she recalled softly. "Then they took away my shoes. They told me to walk barefoot back to the countryside. They said, `Go away and die.'"