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“The only thing necessary for these diseases to the triumph is for good people and governments to do nothing.”

 

India

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Main topics can be found within the left column; sub-topics and/or research reports can be found near the bottom of this page.  Thank you

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A Jihad Against AIDS

If the best vehicle for educating a Muslim population about Aids is one that carries authority, enjoys mass reach and possesses the power to convince, who better than the person who leads prayers at a mosque? Particularly in a predominantly Muslim region such as the Kashmir Valley?

 

AIDS Erupts as National Security Issue - Epidemics Threaten Russia, China and India Five years ago, the Clinton Administration identified AIDS as a national and global security threat, declaring that it has the potential to destabilize governments. Today, the threat has grown as governments across sub-Saharan Africa teeter on the brink of collapse while those in developed and developing states differ greatly in their reactions to the devastating disease from denial to the suggestion of aggressive action.  

AIDS fight: India, Inc. tests negative 

Few other Indian companies may go as far as BPCL, but there's no doubt that the level of HIV/AIDS awareness is far higher in the corporate world than it was as recently as two years back

 

Analysis of Social Aspects of Migrant Labourers Living with HIV/AIDS Migrant workers are more vulnerable to HIV/AIDS than the local population because of their poverty, lack of power, lack of health awareness and unstable life-style.  The main reason for taking up this study is that in the state of Tamil Nadu, migrant labourers constitute the major portion of this affected with HIV/AIDS.  (Rural Taminadu, India) 1539 kb pdf
Awareness, Attitude and Prevention of HIV among Pregnant Women in Maharashtra State, India Awareness and knowledge of HIV/AIDS has increased in the rural areas of Maharashtra since 1999 and can be considered equal with the urban women from 2001. There are still people who have no knowledge of HIV and people with misconceptions of how it is spread. Further campaigns in media and additional efforts to continue to raise the level of awareness among the people in India are essential. To prevent an AIDS-epidemic like in Sub-Saharan Africa, India must fight poverty, increase the general level of education and empower the women. million Pdf 606 kb
balbir case study-approach to reducing AIDS An innovative approach to reducing HIV/AIDS prevalence through targeted mass media communications in Mumbai, India-2003 1,085 kb pdf
Bangladeshi Girls sold as Wives in North India This report is based on the study of 112 Bangladeshi girls and women who were purchased to serve as wives to men of Uttar Pradesh or toher parts of North India.  In most cases, parents had consented to the marriage but were not aware of the sale.  The obligation to marry a daughter early and the impossibility for poor parents to meet dowry demands were the main push factors. 381 kb pdf
Behavioral Surveillance Survey in Maharashtra-India
The main objective of the project is to increase use of effective 
and sustainable responses to reduce the transmission and 
mitigate the impact of STI/HIV/AIDS and related infectious 
diseases in Maharashtra.
735 kb pdf
Child prostitution in India Termed as the oldest profession, prostitution has become an integral part of 'all sorts' that make the world. Women who resort to this rarely get a sympathetic word from the society and their life is wasted away selling momentary pleasures for a meal and existence in cubby holes called 'cages'. If their plight is pathetic, worse still is that of the child prostitutes. Today there is existence of 'kid porn' where children and not adults are chosen for sexual exploitation.  
Child Sex Tourism and the Media in India In public discourse child sex tourism is not considered a major social issue in India, partly because of the perception that the problem is not as acute as in some countries of South East Asia and partly because the problem is largely associated only with poverty conditions. The social acceptability of having sex with a ‘minor’ is largely ignored because large-scale child marriage still takes place.  In addition, women from a number of social groups are considered ‘inferior’ and their sexual exploitation is not considered as ‘something ‘ wrong in a section of Indian society. The women and girls of Dalit and Adivasi communities are termed as ‘ loose’ and therefore free for all to sexually exploit. The perception of the Indian society about commercial sexual exploitation of children is largely governed by ‘poverty syndrome’.  

Comparative analysis-India & Uganda

HIV and AIDS-related discrimination, stigmatization and denial

Pdf  209 kb

Correctional Services Portfolio Committee

The problem of HIV/AIDS in prison is a reality which the Department is committed to addressing in consultation with other role players within and outside the government spheres. The HIV/AlDS pandemic is a problem for all corrections worldwide. It is believed HIV infection is high in prison settings than in the general public and that effective strategies need to be implemented if the Correctional Services is to manage this pandemic effectively

 

Cultural Approach to HIV/AIDS-Prevention and Care, India A cultural approach to HIV/AIDS care and prevention has to deal with a set of complex issues.  It has to take into account the diversity in religion, language, values and social laws that are part of people’s lives in India.  This handbook takes up some of the issues that are comprised in the cultural matrix and are relevant to the HIV/AIDS epidemic. 278 kb pdf

Educating Mrs. Swaraj (Editorial of Hindustan Times)

Ever since Mrs Swaraj wanted all future AIDS awareness campaigns to shift its focus from the use of condoms to 'abstinence and faithfulness', critics pointed out that her suggestion is seriously lopsided.

 

Ending the stigma of HIV/AIDS--Thoughts for World AIDS Day

We do not have to look far to find evidence of the very real pain suffered by those people - both adults and children - who are infected and affected by HIV/AIDS as a result of stigmatization and discrimination at a variety of levels. A recent study of the effects of HIV/AIDS-related stigma by Save the Children documents the extent of the fear that still characterizes the lives of people living with HIV/AIDS, and those of their families.

 

Dealing with AIDS-India THE HIV and AIDS epidemic started in India in the mid-1980s and is maturing but its full burden is still awaited. The global 3/5 initiative promises to provide anti-retroviral (ARV) treatment to 3 million HIV infected persons by 2005. Indian public health must use this impetus to develop its systemic capacity to provide access to all irrespective of the ability to pay. Besides being the responsibility of the state to do so, the wide knowledge of availability of treatment can contribute to decreasing the stigma against HIV positive persons  
Diverse realities: sexually transmitted infections and HIV in India There are many features that make India a vulnerable country as far as a sexually transmitted infection (STI)/HIV epidemic is concerned. These include the lack of a strong evidence base on which to formulate decision making, a pluralistic and often unregulated health sector, and a highly vulnerable population. Nonetheless, India has shown strong commitment to other areas of a comprehensive reproductive health care programme, and may be able to do so in the field of STI/HIV control. Vast numbers of people in India are severely disadvantaged in terms of income, education, power structures, and gender.  
Female sex worker HIV prevention projects: Lessons learnt from Papua New Guinea, India and Bangladesh None of the projects selected is a perfect example of all criteria…What these case studies represent is a set of experiences and lessons that might clarify for others the areas of strength and weakness typical in successful female sex worker projects.  To the greatest extent possible, we have shown the real difficulties and triumphs of each of the projects. 743 kb pdf

FESTIVAL OF PLEASURE

 Organized by National Network of Sex Workers

 

Future Forsaken: Abuses Against Children Affected by HIV/AIDS in India Millions of Indians, including at least hundreds of thousands of children, are living with human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immune deficiency syndrome.  Many more children are otherwise seriously affected by India’s burgeoning epidemic—when they are forced to withdraw from school to care for sick parents, are forced to work to replace their parents’ income, or are orphaned (losing one or both parents to AIDS) 1049 kb pdf
HEPATITIS C is proving to be an occupational hazard for healthcare workers in India. In this study, the overall prevalence was found to be 4 per cent in the hospital. The prevalence was found high in haemodialysis units (8.33 per cent), blood banks ( 5.56 per cent) and haemodialysis laboratories ( 4 per cent). None of the subjects, however, were found positive in dental units and biochemical and other laboratories.  
HIV/AIDS in India – Church’s Responsibility The first case of HIV was detected in India in 1987.  In the last 15 years, the epidemic has spread rapidly all over the country.  Today India has about 4.5 million HIV positive people.  If this trend continues, India will be the leading country with HIV infection in the world in the near future 18 kb pdf
HIV/AIDS in India-The Hardest Hit states Graphical information concerning India 136 kb pdf
HIV/AIDS in Karnataka-Situation and Response This chartbook is intended to inform a wide audience on the situation of HIV/AIDS in Karnataka and the state’s response to the spread of this deadly disease.  A chartbook of this type serves multiple purposes: to collect the latest data and research from a variety of sources and to put them in one accessible publication; and to do so in a clear and concise manner 504 kb pdf
HIV/AIDS Stigma and Discrimination: A Kerala Experience It goes without saying that HIV/AIDS is as much about social phenomena as it is about biological and medical concerns…But the disease is also associated with stigma, ostracism, repression and discrimination as HIV affected individuals have been rejected by their families, their loved ones and their communities. 43 kb pdf
HIV Bills, Maharashtra and Karnataka The apparent objective of the Bill is to promote the overall security of society through the prevention and control of the spread of HIV infection whilst providing optimal medical care for people living with HIV/ AIDS. However, the provisions of the Bill, if implemented, would result in breach of HIV- positive people’s rights to consent before testing, right to confidentiality of sero- status and right to non- discrimination. In effect, the Bill would serve to drive the epidemic underground and thus exacerbate the further spread of HIV.  

I Have a Dream

Fifty five years ago, a great Indian whom we now call as Father of the Nation, Mahatma Gandhi, led our country to be free from British Colony. His momentous struggle and dedication should be a great beacon light of hope and light  to millions of Indians living with HIV/AIDS who had been seared in the flames of withering injustice

 

India and AIDS--Dodging the Issue

Most HIV victims in India are shunned by a society that would rather ignore the virus. But India cannot afford to do that anymore. Over four-and-a-half million people are now living with HIV/Aids.

 

India: HIV and AIDS-related Discrimination, Stigmatization and Denial

In India, as elsewhere, AIDS is perceived as a disease of ‘others’ –of people living on the margins of society, whose lifestyles are considered ‘perverted’ and ‘sinful.’

292 kb pdf

India's Prostitutes: In AIDS Fight, We Need Our Rights It's a controversial idea: prostitution as bona fide work, not naked exploitation. For years, government policy at best tried to "rehabilitate" prostitutes. But Dutta says, "We are against rehabilitation because it implies this profession is bad. You can't just put some woman on stage, give her a sewing machine and say she is rehabilitated."  
Innocence, Danger and Desire: Representations of Sex Workers in Nepal This paper explores how the category of prostitution has been socially expressed in Nepal as both foreign aid and technical support for HIV/AIDS awareness, education and prevention programmes has been concentrated and developed. Discourses related to prostitution in Nepal draw on a range of sub-texts and stereotypes related to gender, caste, class and ethnicity. Women of the Badi caste of the Mid and Far Western Regions of Nepal are highlighted in this paper as emblematic of how "the prostitute" has been framed as a deviant outsider, and a danger to the moral order, whilst simultaneously an innocent, yet subtly desirable, victim  

Kama Sutra Guide to Safe Sex

"Kama Sutra has many postures that can give men the highest pleasure without consummation and that is what the prostitutes are being taught. "They are learning something very useful,"

 

Kerala India

Kerala is considered one of the most successful cases in poverty reduction in the country

777 kb pdf

Knowledge of Students regarding Hepatitis and HIV/AIDS of a Private Medical University in Karachi There is a lack of awareness among the medical students entering into the profession.  It is the need of the hour to emphasize on practicing universal precautions.  In addition, some preventive measures should be taken by the management of the universities and medical students to avoid the occurrence of these problems  
Knowledge, Perceptions, Attitudes, and Practices of HIV/AIDS-A Comparative Study of Behavior Change in Commercial Sex Workers and Truck Drivers-India This study focuses on truck drivers and rural-based commercial sex workers who either live in or pass through two districts of Tamil Nadu, Dindigul and Coimbatore.  The knowledge/perceptions, attitudes, and practices of each group are used to determine where the truck drivers and commercial sex workers are in the behavior change process using the AIDS Risk Reduction Model as a framework since it focuses specifically on HIV/AIDS. 660 kb pdf

Lessons learned in India

This is a highly effective intervention strategy. As the modes of transmission are through blood and sexual intercourse to
 address the high-risk groups (sex workers; injecting drug addicts; mobile work force, such as truck drivers, construction workers etc.) on a war footing before it percolates to the general public seemed effective. But we failed miserably in preparing the ground for intervention

 

Modelling HIV/AIDS epidemics in Botswana and India: impact of interventions to prevent transmission The interventions directed at sex workers as well as those dealing with sexually transmitted infections showed promise for long-term prevention of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection, although their relative ranking was uncertain. In India, a sex worker intervention would drive the epidemic to extinction. In Botswana none of the interventions alone would achieve this, although the prevalence of HIV would be reduced by almost 50%. Mother-to-child transmission programmes could reduce HIV transmission to infants, but would have no impact on the epidemic itself. In the long run, interventions targeting sexual transmission would be even more effective in reducing the number of HIV-infected children than mother-to-child transmission programmes  
National AIDS Prevention and Control Policy In India the HIV/AIDS epidemic is now 15 years old.  Within this short period it has emerged as one of the most serious public health problems in the country. 189 kb pdf
Networking of people living with AIDS It is witnessed that the number of People living with HIV/AIDS is increasing in coastal part of Karnataka particularly in Udupi and Mangalore districts. The factors attributing towards such a high incidences of HIV is poverty, ignorance, lack of education that led to migration to metros like Mumbai, Bangalore and Pune.  
OCCUPATIONALLY ACQUIRED IMMUNO DEFICIENCY SYNDROME IN INDIA Acquired immuno deficiency syndrome (AIDS) has been in the news for years. Recently it was overshadowed by severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS). In the case of SARS, the persons most at risk are health care workers. In the case of AIDS, health care workers are also at risk; workers in public hospitals are more at risk. These hospitals do not reject patients who contracted or who are suspected of contracting AIDS  
Occurrence of False Positives during Testing for Antibodies to Hepatitis C Virus among Volunteer Blood Donors in India The hepatitis C virus antibody statuses of only 11 (21.5%) of 51 initially reactive samples from volunteer blood donors could be confirmed by using additional screening and confirmatory assays; 23 (45%) were negative by all subsequent assays. Seventeen samples (33.3%) gave variable results in the different assays. The core and NS5 antigens were most immunogenic. An algorithm for serological screening of volunteer blood donors in blood banks of developing countries is suggested.  
PREPARING FOR CIVIL DISOBEDIENCE: INDIAN SEX WORKERS AND THE LAW This article deals with the reform of prostitution laws in India. It begins with an outline of the current legislative framework available in this regard and then critically evaluates the various alternatives to the framework that have been proposed through the 1990s by the Indian government, universities and research institutions, the Indian women’s movement and sex-worker organizations. After undertaking an historical examination of prostitution laws in India from colonial times up to the present, the author recommends the decriminalization of prostitution with a strong emphasis on the protection of the civil rights of prostitute women as a matter of policy. More importantly, the author challenges the underlying assumptions of much Indian feminist theory and practice on the issue, critiques the politics of representation in the law reform process and seeks to highlight the agency of Indian prostitute women in the debate on prostitution laws.  
Preteens in Indian Caste Forced Into Prostitution In one Indian community, 12-year-old girls are forced into prostitution, driven by the economic needs of their families and the pressure of religious legend. Human rights officials are trying to end the practice, but red tape slows their efforts.  
Prevalence of sexually transmitted infections and performance of STI syndromes against aetiological diagnosis, in female sex workers of red light area in Surat, India The mean number of different sexual partners of SWs per day was five. 94.9% reported consistent condom use with the clients. 58.5% of SWs had no symptoms related to STDs at the time of examination. Reported symptoms included lower abdominal pain (19.5%), abnormal vaginal discharge (12.7%), painful sexual intercourse (12.7%), painful micturition (11.0%), itching around the genital area (10.2%), and genital ulcer (5.9%). The prevalence of STI "syndromes" were vaginal discharge syndrome 51.7%, pain in lower abdomen 19.5%, enlarged inguinal lymph nodes 11.9%, and genital ulcer 5.9%. Based on the laboratory reports (excluding HIV tests), 62 (52.5%) SWs did not have any of the four tested STIs. Prevalence of laboratory confirmed STIs were syphilis 22.7% (based on reactive syphilis serology tests), gonorrhoea 16.9%, genital chlamydial infection 8.5%, and trichomoniasis 14.4%. HIV prevalence was 43.2%. The performance of Indian recommended treatment guidelines for vaginal discharge syndrome (VDS) and genital ulcer syndrome (GUS) against aetiological diagnosis was poor.  
Preventing HIV/AIDS in India: Points to Ponder This is a highly effective intervention strategy. Since HIV is transmitted through blood and sexual intercourse, to address the high-risk groups (sex workers; injecting drug addicts; mobile work force, such as truck drivers, construction workers etc.) on a war footing before HIV percolates into the general public would seem effective. But we failed miserably in preparing the ground for intervention. Take for example, the case of sex workers; we never addressed the laws criminalizing sex work and its premises, stigma attached to sex work, human rights violations both by the public and police, gender-power relations in sexuality and differences among the different segments of sex workers. No project can work effectively in a criminalized atmosphere.  

RAPID ASSESSMENT OF CHILDREN AFFECTED AND VULNERABLE TO HIV/AIDS IN MAHARASHTRA

India has an estimated 5.1 million people with HIV infection. The response to the AIDS epidemic in India is yet to take a serious look at the issue of children affected by and vulnerable to HIV/AIDS due to their invisibility, and voicelessness. Policy and programming initiatives to address the needs of children affected by and vulnerable to HIV/AIDS have fallen short at all levels. The latest census indicates that there are 400 million children in India under the age of 18 years (GoI, 2001). The number of orphans in India by all causes is estimated to be 35 million (UNICEF, 2004) and the estimate of destitute children is 44 million (CSA.a). Some of these children might have lost their parent(s) due to AIDS and others might be highly vulnerable to acquiring HIV infection. Media reports quote that more than 1 million children in India under the age of 15 have lost one or both parents to HIV/AIDS (The Guardian, March 23, 2005).  
RIGHTS-INDIA: Building a New Life for HIV-Infected Child Sex Workers
According to Sinha, 70 percent of the 218 girl children rescued during 
a police raid some years ago on a Mumbai brothel, were found HIV- 
infected. "These minors are more prone to the infection as they don't 
have the power to say no to sex without a condom," she says.

 

 
Risk, Morality, and Blame: A Critical Analysis of Government and US Donor Responses to HIV Infections Among Sex Workers in India
The vulnerability of women sex workers to HIV infection in India is 
best understood through a lens of the ‘multiple disadvantages’ sex 
workers face in the context of both broad social inequities and 
specific gender disparities.  Despite recent economic progress 
and the growth of a large middle class in India, gender disparities 
in education, access to land and property, and other means of 
attaining economic security persist.
298 kb pdf

Risky Sexual Behaviour, Marital Relationship and Gupt Rog ('secret illnesses' in Hindi) in the Slums of Mumbai city, India

India is experiencing a rapid increase in HIV/AIDS and in other sexually transmitted infections. It is now the country with the second largest absolute number of HIV infected individuals in the world, with UNAIDS (2000) placing the current figure of individuals with HIV/AIDS in India at close to four million, with a rate of 0.7%. An estimate of the actual burden of HIV-infected population in India suggests that 1.5% of the 1 billion Indian population, or 11.5 million individuals were already infected with HIV, making it the country with the largest numerical burden in the world (Kumar 1999). Pdf 183 kb
RURAL SEXUAL BEHAVIOUR IN INDIA The spread of the HIV/AIDS epidemic in India, driven primarily by sexual contact, has impelled research into sexuality and sexual behavior in various sectors of the Indian population. The decade of the nineties saw numerous studies of sexual behavior in a variety of locations, mostly characterized by a strong focus on qualitative methodology, exploring in-depth the complex patterns and contexts of sexual behavior. However, there has been more research in urban areas, with insufficient attention to rural situations and tribal sexual behavior.  
Sex Workers and the Cost of Safe Sex: The Compensating Differential for Condom Use in Calcutta The practice of safe sex by commercial sex workers is considered to be central in preventing the transmission of AIDS in developing countries.  However, anecdotal evidence suggests that sex workers may face large losses in income from using condoms because of a strong preference for condom-free sex among clients. 98 kb pdf
Sexual Experiences and Their Correlates Among College Students in Mumbai City, India Traditional norms and the role of the family are losing their importance in governing young people’s sexual behavior in India.  School-based sexuality programs are needed that will provide students with accurate information about pregnancy, contraception and sexually transmitted diseases. 434 kb pdf
Sexual Harassment and Rape Laws in India Sexual harassment and rape are two sides of the same coin. Both showcase the power of man to dominate that of women. Both have one victim- ‘women’. Both are barbaric in nature; but many people extenuate sexual harassment to rape, just because the victims are not physically harmed. Whereas in rape- the victim is ravished like an animal for the fulfillment of desire and lust of another man. Both have the same object- to undermine the integrity of the victim, physically as well as mentally.  
South & East Asia: Actions that protect: Promoting sexual and reproductive health and choice among young people in India Young people in India are healthier, more urbanized and better educated than earlier generations; they experience puberty at younger ages, and marry and have children later than in the past.  At the same time, they face significant risks related to sexual and reproductive health, and many lack the power to make informed sexual and reproductive choices. 349 kb pdf
Tackling India's HIV epidemic: lessons from Africa The rapid spread of HIV in sub-Saharan Africa is one of the greatest failures in the history of public health. Given our detailed understanding of HIV and the natural course of AIDS, the virus should have been controllable. Yet in some African countries 20% of people aged over 15 are HIV positive and 70% of them will eventually die from AIDS. India shares some of the same risk factors as Africa, including a similar pattern of health expenditure, an uneven health infrastructure, and prevalent high risk sexual behaviours  

The effects of scale on costs of Targeted HIV Prevention Interventions Among Female and Male Sex workers, MSM, and Transgenders in India

(Large file-Increase download time)
Power Point Presentation 6975 kb
The Future of AIDS: Grim Toll in Russia, China, and India HIV/AIDS is a disease at once amazingly virulent and shockingly new. Only a generation ago, it lay undetected. Yet in the past two decades, by the reckoning of the Joint UN Programme on HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS), about 65 million people have contracted the illness, and perhaps 25 million of them have already died. The affliction is almost invariably lethal: scientists do not consider a cure to be even on the horizon. For now, it looks as if AIDS could end up as the coming century's top infectious killer.  
The Impact of Structural Adjustment Programmes (SAPs) on Health Policies Of Third World Countries With A Special focus on HIV/AIDs In Sub - Saharan Africa The Caribbean And India. Globally, the HIV pandemic has affected regional areas differently. The rates or forms of HIV transmission are arguably said to differ according to geography. In the more developed socio-economic countries, HIV transmission has occurred mainly between men who have sex with men, bisexuals and people who use street drugs intravenously. In the lower socio-economically-developed countries, HIV transmission is usually through heterosexuals, with women being the most at risk, and mother to child transmission being high.  

VASAI Shows the Way: Vasai Region AIDS Control Society VRACS 

At the end of 2002, the estimated HIV infected population in India is at 4.58 million; a significant leap from the 3.97 million in 2001. Of this 61.5% are males. Pregnant women account for a full 1 percent of the infected population, a clear indication of the movement of the epidemic into the general population

 

Why has the number 4 million HIV+ Failed to Elicit the required Response in India?

Indians are very intelligent, caring and perceptive people, and yet this information seems to have elicited very little tangible response from the bureaucrats, or the industrialists, or the medical community, or the government or for that matter the general public

 

Yes, you are positive, but there is nothing we can do for you 

In some ways the programme took a bold step by starting to talk about sex - the main route of transmission of HIV - in a society, which didn't like to talk about such things. Public information campaigns were launched which actually spoke of how HIV infection was acquired - and how it wasn't, through casual contact,

 

Youth and HIV/AIDS in India India seems to be in the stage of the pandemic’s evolution in which eastern and southern Africa found themselves a decade ago, whereby HIV prevalence rates in many areas area already high and rapidly rising, but impacts have not yet begun to fully emerge 184 kb pdf

 

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