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β€œThe only thing necessary for these diseases to the triumph is for good people and governments to do nothing.”


Surveillance

Main topics can be found within the left column; sub-topics and/or research reports can be found near the bottom of this page.  Thank you

 

 

 

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"In 1878, Congress authorized the U.S. Marine Hospital Service (i.e., the forerunner of the Public Health Service {PHS}) to collect morbidity reports regarding cholera, smallpox, plague, and yellow fever from U.S. consuls overseas; this information was to be used for instituting quarantine measures to prevent the introduction and spread of these diseases into the United States. In 1879, a specific Congressional appropriation was made for the collection and publication of reports of these notifiable diseases. The authority for weekly reporting and publication of these reports was expanded by Congress in 1893 to include data from states and municipal authorities. To increase the uniformity of the data, Congress enacted a law in 1902 directing the Surgeon General to provide forms for the collection and compilation of data and for the publication of reports at the national level. In 1912, state and territorial health authorities -- in conjunction with PHS -- recommended immediate telegraphic reporting of five infectious diseases and the monthly reporting, by letter, of 10 additional diseases. The first annual summary of The Notifiable Diseases in 1912 included reports of 10 diseases from 19 states, the District of Columbia, and Hawaii. By 1928, all states, the District of Columbia, Hawaii, and Puerto Rico were participating in national reporting of 29 specified diseases. At their annual meeting in 1950, the State and Territorial Health Officers authorized a conference of state and territorial epidemiologists whose purpose was to determine which diseases should be reported to PHS. In 1961, CDC assumed responsibility for the collection and publication of data concerning nationally notifiable diseases.

The list of nationally notifiable diseases is revised periodically. For example, a disease may be added to the list as a new pathogen emerges, or a disease may be deleted as its incidence declines. Public health officials at state health departments and CDC continue to collaborate in determining which diseases should be nationally notifiable; CSTE, with input from CDC, makes recommendations annually for additions and deletions to the list of nationally notifiable diseases. However, reporting of nationally notifiable diseases to CDC by the states is voluntary. Reporting is currently mandated (i.e., by state legislation or regulation) only at the state level. The list of diseases that are considered notifiable, therefore, varies slightly by state. All states generally report the internationally quarantinable diseases (i.e., cholera, plague, and yellow fever) in compliance with the World Health Organization's International Health Regulations. "

β€”Summary of Notifiable Diseases, United States, 1995

Document Name & Link to Document

Description

File Size /Type**

1999 OSH Summary Estimates

Work related injury and illnesses

48 kb pdf

A compilation of the Ryan White Care Act of 1990, as amended by the Ryan White Care Act Amendment of 1996

Complete text of the ACT

143 kb pdf

A Guidebook for Resettlement Agencies Serving Refugees with HIV/AIDS

The purpose of this publication is to assist resettlement agencies in preparing for and providing care to refugees who are living with HIV/AIDS. We hope that his guidebook will serve as a resource for resettlement agencies and establish basic standards of care for HIV-positive refugees.

69 kb pdf

AIDS Brief: Town and Regional Planners

The importance of considering HIV/AIDS in town and regional planning may not perhaps be immediately apparent. However, a brief reflection reveals multiple situations where an understanding of the HIV/AIDS epidemic and the subsequent consideration of this in planning can have a significan impact on the estent to which the emerging epidemic will influence the livelihood of communities

446 kb pdf

AMBION Risk Management Model

Any good Health and Safety Management System ensures that change to, or outside influence on, existing facilities and operations should be assessed in relation to impact on health, safety and environmental standards.

 

 BioTerrorism

 Report to the Subcommitte on Government efficiency

 1,229 kb pdf

Delays in treatment 

While hospital Emergency Departments (EDs) are the source of just over one-half of all reported sentinel event cases of patient death or permanent injury due to delays in treatment, Joint Commission sentinel event data reveal that such serious problems can occur in any hospital unit, as well as in other health care settings.

 

Green Book-AIDS Impact Model (AIM)

Methods for building political commitment for effective HIV/AIDS policies and Programs

774 kb pdf

Grey Book Federal OSHA Bloodborne Pathogen Directive

A Resource Primer of OSHA regulations

509 kb pdf

HIV report form of exposure

Exposure report form for law enforcement of California

80 kb pdf

HIV/AIDS Surveillance Report-1996

Report from CDC includes tables and graphs

538 kb pdf

HIV/AIDS Surveillance Report-1996

Has additional table and graphs

749 kb pdf

National Health Interview Survey-2001

Report from the National Center for Health Statistics

974 kb pdf

National HIV Prevalence Surveys 1997 Summary

Report from the CDC

2,406 kb pdf

National Surveillance System For Health Care Workers

Needlestick and other percutaneous injuries (PIs) pose the greatest risk of occupational transmission of bloodborne viruses to health-care workers (HCWs). The annual number of PIs sustained by U.S. HCWs have been estimated using a variety of methods and have ranged from 100,000-1,000,000.

 

NHIS Survey Description

Methodology for survey

178 kb pdf

Policy Statements Adopted by the Governing Council of the American Public Health Ass. 1999

Areas of concern

486 kb pdf

Research for Sale

The ties between clinical researchers and industry include not only grant support, but also a host of other financial arrangements. These include researchers who serve as consultants, join advisory boards, enter into patent and royalty agreements, promote drugs and devices at company-sponsored symposium, and accept expensive gifts and trips.

 

Ryan White Care Act Amendments of 2000

Section by section summary

26 kb pdf

STD Screening, Testing, Case Reporting, and Clinical and Partner Notification Practices: A National Survey of US Physicians

STD screening levels are well below practice guidelines for women and virtually nonexistent for men. Case reporting levels are below those legally mandated; physicians rely instead on patients for partner notification. Health departments must increase collaboration with private physicians to improve the quality of STD care

115 kb pdf

Surveillance of occupational exposure to bloodborne pathogens in health care workers: the Italian national programme

Health care workers (HCWs) face a serious risk of acquiring bloodborne infections, in particular hepatitis B virus (HBV), hepatitis C virus (Hepatitis C Virus), and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), all of which are associated with significant morbidity and mortality.

 

Surveillance of exposure to blood-borne viruses (HIV, HBV, HCV) and its management 1999 – 2004 On a referral basis, the TPC aims to provide comprehensive post exposure care to people with documented percutaneous, mucosal or breached skin exposure to blood/body fluids, which could have therapeutic and/or diagnostic implications for HIV or viral hepatitis B and C. Doctors and nurses are the key health professionals staffing the clinic. After the initial consultation and work up, clients are offered clinic revisit at 6 months post exposure to have follow up blood investigations if PEP or HBIg is not indicated. A defaulted case is closed at 8 months after injury per clinic protocol. Pdf 307 kb

Surveillance, Social Risk, and Symbolism: Framing the Analysis for Research and Policy

Name-based surveillance for HIV, considered in and of itself, is a useful public health measure, the benefits of which far outweigh direct costs. There is little evidence that name-based surveillance directly deters individuals at risk of HIV from being tested, or exposes them to significant social risks. Yet the imposition of surveillance by name has been chronically controversial, steadfastly opposed by HIV advocates, civil libertarians, and even some public health professionals.

 

The Defense Medical Surveillance System and the Department of Defense Serum Repository: Glimpses of the Future of Public Health Surveillance

The Defense Medical Surveillance System (DDSS) is the central repository of medical surveillance data of medical surveillance data for the US armed forces.

144 kb pdf

The State of Health Care Quality: 2002

The American health care system is one of interdependent relationship: doctor and patient, doctor and health care organization, and enrollee and organization.

776 kb pdf

Updated Guidelines for Evaluating Public Health Surveillance Systems Recommendations from the Guidelines Working Group

The purpose of evaluating public health surveillance systems is to ensure that problemsof public health importance are being monitored efficiently and effectively. Public health surveillance systems should be evaluated periodically, and the evaluation should include recommendations for improving quality, efficiency, and usefulness. The goal of these guidelines is to organize the evaluation of a public health surveillance system. Broad topics are outlined into which program-specific qualities can be integrated. Evaluation of a public health surveillance system focuses on how well the system operates to meet its purpose and objectives.

 

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