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“The only thing necessary for these diseases to the triumph is for good people and governments to do nothing.”

Occupational Issues & Infectious Diseases


Main topics can be found within the left column; sub-topics and/or research reports can be found near the bottom of this page.  Thank you


We offer a monthly newsletter dealing with the various issues surrounding infectious diseases.  To find out more click HERE.


"There are many issues involved with occupational exposure and infectious diseases.  One of the most noteworthy is the fact that while there may be information about many of the high risk occupations--there is none about the exposure rates nor infection rates for anyone employed within any area of Law Enforcement.  Governments around the world, if contacted, will tell you that they have no documented evidence of anyone employed in any area of law enforcement that has ever been exposed to or infected by any infectious disease-not even Hepatitis B which has the probability of at least 40% for infection when exposed. 


Coverage for Occupational Exposure is based upon the fact that you cannot verify that infection did occur while employed.  And that is the center of the problem-how can you verify that exposure did occur when in fact it takes several months to several years to show signs and symptoms of the infection.  During that period of time-you could have become infected on your own time, away from work.  In some areas of the world, if there is an infectious disease that is present within the general population-then there is no coverage for exposure within the work environment."  The owners of this site


Many communities have fought to have a correctional facility within their area, to bring jobs, increase the tax base and basically to help to the total community, especially during the economic times.  One other thing that these facilities also bring-diseases. 

Role of incarceration-How it impacts us all:

Mortality Chart from Del Norte County California compared to State Average Mortality and the Mortality Chart from Fremont County, Colorado when compared to State Average Mortality
Del Norte County, California                                 
Fremont County, Colorado

The only common factor between both of the above communities is the correctional facilities located in their county. These counties are separated by 1200 miles-one in California, the other in Colorado



Exposure in the work environment: This table will give you the probability of acquiring of these three diseases. However, there are several other infectious disease that are not listed; but just as potentially infectious that can be acquired in the work arena.

Exposure type


Hepatitis C Virus




% rate (95% CI)


% rate (95% CI)


% rate (95% CI)



0.14 (0.03-0.41)


0.39 (0.20-0.68)


0 (0-0.42)

by hollow-bore needle


0.14 (0.02-0.52)


0.61 (0.31-1.07)


0 (0-0.72)

- blood-filled


0.21 (0.03-0.75)


0.85 (0.42-1.51)


0 (0-1.14)

- non blood-filled


0 (0-1.07)


0.16 (0.006-0.88)


0 (0-2.11)

by other sharp or solid needle


0.21 (0.06-1.18)


0 (0-0.37)


0 (0-0.99)

Mucous contamination


0.43 (0.05-1.53)


0.36 (0.04-1.29)


0 (0-2.02)

Non-intact skin contamination


0 (0-0.64)


0 (0-0.78)


0 (0-3.77)


This is a table of frequency rates provided by CDC: Crude Frequency of Potential Sources for Acquiring Viral Hepatitis and Other Characteristics, 1993 (Report Number 56 -- Issued April 1996, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention)


Hep A

Hep B

Non-A, Non-B


Potential Frequency Sources







Blood transfusion






Child/employee in daycare center






Contact of daycare child/employee






Dental work












Homosexual activity






Injection Drug Use






International travel






Medical/dental employment






Multiple sex partners






Other percutaneous exposures






Personal contact with patient-Hep A






Personal contact with patient-non A, non B hepatitis












Suspected food borne or waterborne outbreak















Document Name & Link to Document


File Size /Type**

Workers Compensation (A thru L) Link to another index page like this one devoted to worker's compensations issues.  
Workers Compensation (M thru Z) Link to another index page like this one devoted to worker's compensations issues.  

1998 National Health Interview Survey (NHIS)

Give information and site information for downloading public use data and documentation for the 1998 NHIS

178 kb pdf



The aim of this research was to explore the lived experience of three medical doctors after experiencing a needle stick injury. Needle stick injuries were defined as injuries, self-inflicted or by colleagues, where a needle punctures or lacerates the skin. There is an associated risk of HIV transmission via a needle stick injury, which prompted the exploration of the psychological aspects of the injury. The research was contextualised in terms of South Africa’s spiralling rate of HIV infection, as a result of which, it is reasonable to expect that doctors will increasingly be treating HIV positive patients. The research explored an area that has largely been untouched by researchers. The literature study showed that as regards needle stick injuries, the focus tends to be on the injury itself, the risk of HIV transmission and the causal patterns surrounding it, rather than on the psychological consequences. Pdf 342 kb

Actuarial Aspects of Dread Disease Products

Dread Disease/Critical Illness insurance has attracted much attention because it differs significantly from other life products in that the benefit is paid upon occurrence of a specific disease rather upon death

526 kb pdf

Anxiety in health care workers after exposure to potentially HIV-contaminated blood or body fluids In order to measure anxiety in health care workers (HCWs) reporting occupational exposures to potentially contaminated body fluids, we enrolled 55 HCWs in a prospective study. Percutaneous and mucous membrane exposures were most frequent. 27% of study participants estimated their risk of HIV-infection as above 1%. Personality bound anxiety was not high, but acute anxiety showed a high variability. In a multiple regression model high personality bound anxiety, lower age and being a HCW other than physician independently predicted higher acute anxiety scores. No HIV or hepatitis C virus infection occurred. HCWs encounter significant anxiety after occupational exposure to potentially contaminated body fluids despite the possibility of potent post exposure prophylaxis Pdf 178 kb
Arizona Occupational Exposure Law Employees are notified that a claim may be made for a condition, infection, disease or disability involving or related to the Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV), Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS), or Hepatitis C within the provisions of the Arizona Workers’ Compensation Law, and the rules of The Industrial Commission of Arizona  
Arizona statutes under the heading "Communicable Disease Related Information"
A person who obtains communicable disease related information 
in the course of providing a health service or obtains that 
information from a health care provider pursuant to an authorization
 shall not disclose or be compelled to disclose that information 
except to the following:
Australia Occupational Exposure The data on occupational injuries and diseases contained in the National Workers' Compensation Statistics database have been compiled by the National Occupational Health and Safety Commission (NOHSC) from information supplied by Commonwealth, State and Territory workers' compensation authorities. These agencies processed workers' compensation claims received from insurance companies, self-insurers and some government departments  
Bloodborne Pathogens and the Dental Health Care Worker Power Point Presentation 514 kb
BLOODBORNE PATHOGENS EXPOSURE CONTROL PLAN Department of the Army control plan- To prescribe policies, responsibilities and procedures for implementation of the Bloodborne Pathogen Exposure Control Plan (BBPECP) to meet the letter and intent of the OSHA Bloodborne Pathogens Standard (29 CFR 1910.1030). OSHA has enacted this standard to "reduce occupational exposure to Hepatitis B Virus (HBV), Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) and other bloodborne pathogens". This plan details measures WRAMC and its employees will take to decrease the risk of transmission of bloodborne pathogens and provide appropriate treatment and counseling should an employee be exposed to bloodborne pathogens.  
Blood-borne viruses in the workplace It is very unlikely that you will become infected through everyday social contact with another worker who has a BBV. BBVs are mainly transmitted sexually or by direct exposure to infected blood or other body fluids contaminated with infected blood. In the workplace, direct exposure can happen through accidental contamination by a sharp instrument, such as a needle or broken glass. Infected blood may also spread through contamination of open wounds, skin abrasions, skin damaged due to a condition such as eczema, or through splashes to the eyes, nose or mouth. Pdf 451 kb
Bombay Police test positive "Around 450 policemen have tested positive for HIV," Prem Kishan Jain, joint police commissioner for administration, said. The figure is initial, with medical data not yet compiled for much of Bombay's 40,000-strong police force.  
Carbondale Elementary School District 95-Illinois
An employee with a communicable or chronic infectious disease 
shall be evaluated by the District's Superintendent and the 
employee, and a representative selected by each if so desired by 
the employee. The employee's medical condition shall be held in 
strictest confidence by the Superintendent, with only the employee's 
direct supervisors being informed of the employee's medical condition 
if deemed necessary by the Superintendent.

CDC report on occupational exposure to Blood Pathogens

Explanation of the reporting system and what to do

37 kb pdf

Changes in workers' compensation laws during 2001 The issue of coverage under workers' compensation laws received a great deal of attention in 2001. For example, extending presumptions of coverage for certain diseases suffered by law enforcement officers or firefighters, or both, occurred in Arizona, California, Florida, Maryland, and Virginia.  
Claims Against Insurance Companies for Fraud & Bad Faith Insurance companies nationwide have begun using claims handling practices that are aimed at cost containment and building claims profit. This means the insurance companies design practices aimed at delaying the payment of claims and underpaying the fair claim value of a given claim. This is not an ethical practice and violates all insurance industry customs and ethical principles of the insurance industry.  
COMPENSATION FOR OCCUPATIONAL DISEASE: HIDDEN AGENDAS This article explores the values implicit in the long-standing debate over the mechanisms for compensating victims of occupational disease. We begin by reviewing the: treatment of workers’ health and safety at common law, the background for modern remedies. We then turn to workers’ compensation, which today provides the basis for most of the payments to victims of workplace injury. Finally, we look at possible future solutions to the problems of disease compensation. Pdf 112 kb
Costs of Occupational Injuries and Illnesses Most Americans between the ages of 22 and 65 spend 40 to 50 percent of waking hours at work. Every year millions of Americans suffer injuries and thousands experience deaths in our workplaces. Yet little effort has been made to estimate either the extent of these injuries, deaths, and diseases or their cost to the economy. Thus, important questions about workplace safety and the economic resources expended due to workplace health problems remain unanswered. In this study, we address these questions by presenting estimates of the incidence, prevalence, and costs of workplace-related injuries, illnesses, and deaths for the entire civilian workforce of the United States in 1992. We also consider controversies surrounding cost methodologies, estimate how these costs are distributed across occupations, consider who pays the costs, and address some policy issues  

Direct Cost of Follow-up for Percutaneous and Mucocutaneous Exposures

Published by the International Health Care Worker Safety Center at the University of Virginia

48 kb pdf

Disease management. Research report compiled for the insurance industry to manage diseases 211 kb pdf
Division of Workers' Compensation - The California workers' compensation system The workers' compensation system is premised on a trade-off between employees and employers -- employees are supposed to promptly receive the limited statutory workers' compensation benefits for on-the-job injuries, and in return, the limited workers' compensation benefits are the exclusive remedy for injured employees against their employer, even when the employer negligently caused the injury.  
Epidemiological Notes on Occupational Exposure As of March 14, 1988, a total of 55,315 adults with AIDS had been reported to CDC. Occupational information was available for 47,532 of these persons, 2,586 (5.4%) of whom were classified as health-care workers  

Estimating Future Hepatitis C Morbidity, Mortality, and Cost in the United States

Objectives: This study estimated future morbidity, mortality, and the costs resulting from hepatitis C virus

133 kb pdf

Exposure to Blood: What Healthcare Personnel Need to Know Exposures occur through needlesticks or cuts from other sharp instruments contaminated with an infected patient’s blood or through contact of the eye, nose, mouth, or skin with a patient’s blood.  Important factors that influence the overall risk for occupational exposures to bloodborne pathogens include the number of infected individuals in the patient population and the type and number of blood contacts. 364 kb pdf
Exposure of healthcare workers in England, Wales, and Northern Ireland to bloodborne viruses between July 1997 and June 2000: analysis of surveillance data The transmission of bloodborne viruses to healthcare workers can have serious consequences not only for clinical practice but also, because of the requirements of health and safety legislation, for their employers. In spite of guidance and education, however, many health­care workers continue to be exposed to bloodborne viruses from percutaneous, mucocutaneous, or other injuries. An enhanced system of surveillance of occupational exposure to bloodborne viruses was introduced in mid­1997, developing the passive system that was set up after the first reported case (in 1984) in the United Kingdom of HIV seroconversion associated with needlestick injury. Pdf 360 kb

Eye of the Needle-Hep B, Hep C, HIV- United Kingdom Surveillance of Significant Occupational Exposures to Bloodborne Viruses in Healthcare Workers. November

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The active surveillance of significant occupational exposures in England, Wales and Northern Ireland for bloodborne viruses was implemented in July 1997.1 Under the scheme, occupational exposures include2 percutaneous exposures, where the skin has been broken by a needle/other sharp object, human scratch or bite and mucocutaneous exposures, where the mucous membranes (mouth, nose or eyes), or non-intact skin have been contaminated. A significant exposure is a percutaneous or mucocutaneous exposure to blood or other body fluids from a source that is known to be, or as a result of the incident found to be, HBV surface antigen (HBsAg), HCV, or HIV positive. Pdf 2685 kb

Financial and Risk Considerations for Successful Disease Management Programs

Report for the insurance industry-this paper introduces disease management risk concepts in general, along with a discussion of risk and financial evaluation considerations, and a brief case study illustrating these principles.

211 kb pdf

Guidance on Management and Patient Notification HIV Infected Health Care Workers The document reflects the new policy on patient notification exercises when a health care worker is found to be infected with HIV, which was announced in November 2001. It follows expert advice from the Expert Advisory Group on AIDS (EAGA) and UK Advisory Panel for Health Care Workers Infected with Blood-borne Viruses (UKAP. They advise that it is no longer necessary to notify every patient who has undergone an exposure prone procedure by an HIV infected health care worker because of the low risk of transmission and the anxiety caused to patients and the wider public. However, the long-standing restriction on HIV infected health care workers carrying out exposure prone procedures remains. pdf 525 kb
GUIDELINES FOR HIV TESTING IN VA FACILITIES FOLLOWING OCCUPATIONAL EXPOSURES This information letter provides guidance concerning Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) testing in occupational exposure situations; clarifies Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) policy about testing for HIV, and includes a collection of consensus recommendations of a Committee that included experts in the field of HIV, Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS), and occupational safety.  
HAS THE POINT BEEN MADE? There is a growing awareness within the health service of the impact of needlestick injuries and the need to introduce policies and procedures that will reduce their occurrence, in conjunction with the use of anti-needlestick devices. SafeGard Medical is a company that specialises in providing these devices.  

Hazards of needlesticks-Sharp End

Needlestick injuries are up there with slips, trips and falls as one of the top accident risks in UK hospitals. Safer devices are available and would remove a possibly lethal infection hazard-so why aren’t hospitals using them?

144 kb pdf

Health care workers and AIDS: a differential study of beliefs and affects associated with accidental exposure to blood This study aimed to analyze affective and cognitive determinants of the professional work of individuals caring for patients with HIV/AIDS, in view of the risk and/or experience of accidental exposure to blood. We drew on the theoretical-methodological references of Fishbein & Ajzen and Maslow's theory. Fifty health care workers were evaluated using an attitudes questionnaire and a needs and motivations instrument. The research verified differences between answers by health care workers who had never suffered accidents and those who had already experienced accidental exposure to blood. Health care workers did their work activities motivated by the need for self-fulfillment and valued their own performance when they were able to meet the patients' emotional needs. Among health professionals who had never experienced accidental exposure to blood, the predominant beliefs was that patients feel remorse over having expose themselves to HIV. Accidental exposure to blood raises difficulties in personal life. Technical aspects are also associated with the possibility of accidental exposure to blood.  


Health care workers are at occupational risk for acquiring this infection because Hepatitis C Virus is transmitted by direct percutaneous exposure to blood. The CDC recommends that individual health care institutions consider establishing policies and procedures for follow-up of infection with Hepatitis C Virus after percutaneous or permucosal exposures to blood.


Health care workers infected with HIV, Hepatitis B or Hepatitis C-Australia This circular extends policy on health care workers infected with blood borne viruses to include hepatitis C.  All health care workers in New South Wales who perform exposure prone procedures are required to know their blood blorne virus status.  A HCW who either HCV PCR positive or HIV positive or HbeAg positive or HBV DNA positive must not perform exposure prone procedures. 45 kb pdf

Healthcare Exposure

Deals with poisoning and Toxicity with areas of infectious diseases that are found in the work area

471 kb pdf

HEALTHCARE WORKERS: PROTECTING THOSE WHO PROTECT OUR HEALTH Healthcare-worker protection has lagged behind that afforded other workers with similarly increased risks. Possible explanations for the delay in focusing on occupational hazards faced by healthcare workers are many and likely include the focus of curative rather than preventive medicine in the hospital environment; the focus on patient health over worker health; and the focus within occupational health on traditionally male occupations and hazards rather than female workers.  

Healthcare Workers and Hepatitis C

Health care workers are at occupational risk for acquiring this infection because Hepatitis C Virus is transmitted by direct percutaneous exposure to blood. Reported in ‘American Family Physician’

223 kb pdf


A nursing safety expert asked how many hundreds of medical workers need to die from contaminated needle sticks before the agency bans standard needles and syringes that are causing the injuries


Hep C in the Fire Service: Do fire, rescue and EMS personnel face a higher risk of being infected by Hepatitis C than the general population? They're often exposed to victims’ blood and only recently have the precautions been put in place to protect them from exposure to blood-borne diseases. The answer to that question would seem obvious.  
Hepatitis B virus infected physicians and disclosure of transmission risks to patients: A critical analysis The potential for transmission of blood-borne pathogens such as hepatitis B virus from infected healthcare workers to patients is an important and difficult issue facing healthcare policymakers internationally. Law and policy on the subject is still in its infancy, and subject to a great degree of uncertainty and controversy. Policymakers have made few recommendations regarding the specifics of practice restriction for health care workers who are hepatitis B seropositive. Generally, they have deferred this work to vaguely defined "expert panels" which will have the power to dictate the conditions under which infected health care workers may continue to practice  
HEPATITIS C AND POLICE WORK There have been many articles published on the risks of transmission of hepatitis C. All "emergency workers" are high risk. Not only do police officers work with the sector of the population most at risk (prison, drug users, drunks) but they are also first responders to motor vehicle accidents and domestic disputes.  
HEPATITIS C and the fire service: assessing the risk The news that Philadelphia (PA) Fire Depart-ment (PFD) firefighters screened for hepatitis C (HCV) in 1999 had an infection rate almost three times the average for the U.S. population vividly reminded the fire service that complacency in the health and safety arena can be as deadly as complacency on the fireground. The revelation moved fire departments to look more closely at their infection-control policies and means for protecting their members against infectious diseases and supporting those who already have become infected.  
Hepatitis C Virus Infection Among Firefighters, Emergency Medical Technicians, and Paramedics --- Selected Locations, United States, 1991—2000 First responders (e.g., firefighters, emergency medical technicians [EMTs], and paramedics) are at risk for occupational exposure to bloodborne pathogens. Recently, CDC has received inquiries from state and local health departments and occupational health services about the prevalence of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection among first responders and the need for routine HCV testing among these workers. This report summarizes the findings of five studies of HCV infection among first responders. Although some of these workers may need HCV testing under certain circumstances, this report indicates that first responders are not at greater risk than the general population for HCV infection; therefore, routine HCV testing is not warranted.  
Hepatitis C & HIV Co-Infection: an update-Sept. 2003 More than 3 percent of the world’s population, about 2 percent of the US population, and up to 10 percent of US health care workers are currently infected with the Hepatitis C virus. 327 kb pdf
HEPATITIS C IN THE WORKPLACE Poster that can be displayed in the work environment to explain Hepatitis C Pdf 125 kb
Hepatitis C Infected Health Care Workers Implementing Getting Ahead of the Curve: action on blood-borne viruses  
HEPATITIS C is proving to be an occupational hazard for healthcare workers in India. In this study, the overall prevalence was found to be 4 per cent in the hospital. The prevalence was found high in haemodialysis units (8.33 per cent), blood banks ( 5.56 per cent) and haemodialysis laboratories ( 4 per cent). None of the subjects, however, were found positive in dental units and biochemical and other laboratories.  
HIV and AIDS in the Workplace In addition to the sheer number of young people affected, the profound impact of AIDS upon the American workplace and the special attention garnered by the disease have stemmed from a wide range of sensitive medical, social, and political issues. From the onset of the epidemic, AIDS struck disproportionately members of certain stigmatized groups, such as gay men and intravenous drug abusers, adding layers of complexity to workplace confidentiality and discrimination concerns. Because it is an infectious illness, widespread ignorance regarding disease transmission, particularly during the early years of the epidemic, led to an increased risk of ostracism at work. The episodic nature of an illness marked by recurrent opportunistic infections also presented difficulties to both employers and to those infected individuals trying to remain occupationally productive. Today, as more AIDS patients benefit from highly effective antiretroviral therapy, their re-integration into the workplace adds yet another layer of complexity  
HIV AND THE HEALTH CARE WORKER: Transmission of HIV in the Health Care By December 31, 1995, the cumulative number of AIDS cases reported in the U.S. had exceeded 500,000. The CDC currently estimates that 1 million Americans are HIV-infected. Nearly all health care workers (HCWs) will be involved in some way with the care of these persons who require frequent visits to clinics and hospitals. This fact is illustrated by the "Sentinel Hospitals" study which measured HIV prevalence among hospitalized patients who were not known to be HIV-infected. The seroprevalence at these 26 hospitals varied from 0.1 percent to 7.85 percent and was as high as 21.7 percent in men aged 25 to 44 at one hospital1. Well-documented cases of occupationally acquired HIV infection have understandably raised concerns among HCWs regarding their own safety. This article reviews the current data on occupational transmission of HIV infection, the current methods in place to protect HCWs, and the management of an occupational exposure to HIV when it occurs  
HIV, Hepatitis-B, Hepatitis-C: Blood-borne Diseases

Nurses constantly balance occupational risks with their primary goal of providing quality health care to all persons. Because threats to personal well-being may affect practice, nurses must promote a safe and healthy work environment to protect themselves, their loved ones, patients, and coworkers.

As front-line providers of health care, nurses have long been exposed to blood-borne pathogens on the job. The AIDS epidemic has heightened awareness of this and has broadened our knowledge of other bloodborne diseases, notably hepatitis-B (HBV) and hepatitis-C (HCV).

HIV test made mandatory for city Police Alarmed at the increasing number of HIV positive cases in the
force, the Mumbai police has decided to make it mandatory for each of  the 38,000 constables and officers up to the rank of inspector to undergo a HIV test every six months
HIV/AIDS, and Hepatitis B and C: Preventing Exposure at Work This booklet is for employers and workers who are not expected to come in contact with blood and body fluids at their workplaces-but who could have contact with these fluids in rare, isolated incidents that can’t be foreseen 637 kb pdf
HIV/AIDS, and Hepatitis B and C: Preventing Exposure at Work-Canada Most workers won’t ever contact, at work, blood and certain body fluids that can spread HIV and the hepatitis B and C viruses.  But even employers and workers in setting where contact with blood and these fluids is not expected should be aware of some basic precautions.  This is because it is possible to become infected from a single exposure incident—that is, harmful contact with infected blood and body fluids. 825 kb pdf
HIV/AIDS in the Workplace The spread of HIV/AIDS worldwide, and the growing number of people affected, makes it very likely that few, if any, global companies will escape its impact. As the pandemic progresses, an ever-wider sphere of business operations is being touched by the disease. Although Africa and Asia have been the hardest hit, every continent has seen significant consequences due to HIV/AIDS. Estimates by the World Bank suggest that the macroeconomic impact of HIV/AIDS may reduce the growth of national income by up to a third in countries where the prevalence among adults is 10 percent. Additionally, rates of HIV infection worldwide are highest for the young and for women, who are major contributors to the workforce  

HIV/AIDS Infected Health Care Workers: Guidance on the Management of Infected Health Care Workers

Health care workers who are infected with HIV must promptly seek appropriate expert medical and occupational health advice. If no consultant occupational physician is available locally, consideration should be given to contacting one elsewhere. Those who perform or who may be expected to perform exposure prone procedures must obtain further expert advice about modification or limitation of their work practices to avoid exposure prone procedures. Procedures which are thought to be exposure prone must not be performed whilst expert advice is sought. Pdf 121 kb
HIV/AIDS Technical Assistance Guidelines The impact of HIV/AIDS in the workplace is felt in many areas, for example the loss of productivity, increased cost of employee benefits, high production costs and lower workplace morale due to prolonged staff illness, increased absenteeism and mortality rates.  This, in turn, impacts negatively on the economy of the country as it slows down economic growth with less economically active persons able to contribute to the economy. 274 kb pdf
Hospital blunder allowed sick firefighters to keep working What is particularly devastating for the firefighters who have unknowingly lived with hepatitis-C for the past three years is they don't know how much damage has been done to their liver in that period of time. Nor do they know if they have unknowingly passed it on.  
Human rights approach to AIDS. Southern African Development Community's Code on HIV/AIDS and Employment 426 kb pdf
ILO- Recording and notification of occupational accidents The absence of reliable information about the incidence of occupational accidents and disease is a major obstacle to curbing the appalling toll of work-related deaths and injuries that continues to plague humankind. Despite enormous advances in technology, preventive medicine and the means to prevent accidents, the ILO and the World Health Organization (WHO) estimate that each year around 1.2 million work-related deaths, 250 million accidents and 160 million work-related diseases occur worldwide. Death, illness and injury on such a scale impoverish individuals and their families, and undermine attempts to improve working conditions  
Information for Individuals Who May Have Been Exposed to HIV, the AIDS Virus Health care workers and public service workers may be exposed to the HIV virus through their work.  Even though safer work practices incorporating barrier precautions and safer needle devices will decrease the risk of exposure, they will not completely eliminate it…There are other ways of being exposed to HIV, for example through human bites or sexual assault. 71 kb pdf
International Hazard Datasheets on Occupation-Police / Law Enforcement Officer This datasheet lists, in a standard format, different hazards to which police / law enforcement officers may be exposed in the course of their normal work. This datasheet is a source of information rather than advice. With the knowledge of what causes injuries and diseases, is easier to design and implement suitable measures towards prevention.  
Job-related hepatitis C infections are hard to prove Many people with hepatitis C suffer from a double whammy: They have a potentially deadly virus, which can simmer undetected for decades - and that makes it hard for them to prove how they got it. As a result, veterans, health-care workers, firefighters and others who think they got hepatitis C by being exposed to blood on the job can't easily trace it.  
Job-related infections hard to prove When hepatitis C ruined Mike Coghlan's liver, the Department of Veterans Affairs helped him get a new one. Then it paid for expensive medications to help him recover. But when the 45-year-old Philadelphia man got too sick to work and asked for disability benefits, the VA told him no. He couldn't prove he got the disease while he was in the service, so he was jobless and finally out of luck.  
Law protects emergency workers Compulsory tests for those who expose police, firefighters, EMTs to bodily fluids  
Lost Lives: Work-related deaths in British Columbia Under the requirements of the Workers Compensation Act, a worker must report an injury or a disabling occupational disease as soon as possible to the employer.  The employer must report work-related injuries, occupational diseases, and work-related deaths to the WCB within three days.  A worker may not make an agreement with the employer to give up WCB benefits. 3606 kb pdf
Maine Injured Workers Ass. Occupational disease is the insurance industry's bugaboo. The dark revelation that more than 100,000 Americans are dying each year from this cause has frightened insurance executives. They are apprehensive about the increasing awareness of the contribution of the work environment to the development of many diseases. Substances that we regarded as safe are now known to cause cancer. Heart disease once thought to be strictly non-work-related, is now being linked to stresses at work. If workers' compensation insurers had to pay for any large percentage of the appalling toll of occupational disease, their margins of profit would be seriously affected.  
Management of healthcare workers after occupational exposure to hepatitis C virus
Needlestick injuries pose a potential occupational risk 
to healthcare workers, particularly through transmission of 
bloodborne viruses, such as hepatitis B and C viruses and HIV. 
An effective vaccine is available to prevent hepatitis B virus (HBV) 
infection, and post-exposure antiviral prophylaxis is effective in 
reducing HIV transmission. However, currently there are no 
measures that reduce hepatitis C virus (HCV) transmission.
Managing Occupational Risks for Hepatitis C Transmission in the Health Care Setting This article reviews this developing information. Recently published data demonstrate success rates in the treatment of "acute hepatitis C syndrome" that approach 100\%, and although these studies are not directly applicable to all occupational infections, they may provide important clues to optimal management strategies. In addition, the article delineates approaches to the prevention of occupational exposures and also addresses the difficult issue of managing HCV-infected health care providers. The article summarizes currently available data about the nosocomial epidemiology of HCV infection and the magnitude of risk and discusses several alternatives for managing exposure and infection  
Manual for Healthcare workers on Viral Blood Borne Occupational Diseases This module is meant for all Health-care workers (HCW).It gives recent relevant information on Hepatitis B and C and HIV, without going into details of symtomatology, differential diagnosis and treatment. The references used for preparing the document are given at the end of the document and can be procured from any medical college’s library in India. A notable feature of some of the references is that they are in the public domain, the names of hospitals, where occupationally acquired viral infections have occurred-being clearly mentioned--a far cry from the situation in India where such incidents are held secretive. There have been anecdotal evidence of occupationally acquired HIV infection to health-care workers in Mumbai, Ahemedabad and Vellore.  
Michigan Recommendations on HIV, Hepatitis B, and Hepatitis C Infected Health Care Workers Based upon current scientific information, the following recommendations have been adopted by MDCH to provide protection for patients and HCWs alike.  These guidelines should become part of the infection control guidelines for all health care facilities Pdf 203 kb
Minnesota-occupational exposure Occupational diseases are considered personal injuries under Minnesota workers’ compensation law.  Diseases account for 1 percent of indemnity claims in Minnesota…contagious diseases accounted for 8 percent of disease indemnity claims 20 kb pdf
Missouri Revised Statutes Workers' Compensation Law

(Large report-increased down-load time)

287.067. 1. In this chapter the term "occupational disease" is hereby defined to mean, unless a different meaning is clearly indicated by the context, an identifiable disease arising with or without human fault out of and in the course of the employment. Ordinary diseases of life to which the general public is exposed outside of the employment shall not be compensable, except where the diseases follow as an incident of an occupational disease as defined in this section. The disease need not to have been foreseen or expected but after its contraction it must appear to have had its origin in a risk connected with the employment and to have flowed from that source as a rational consequence.  
Model-based estimates of risk of disease transmission and economic costs of 7 injection devices When not properly sterilized, or if contaminated, needles and syringes can produce local abscesses and can transmit bloodborne infections between patients.  Needlestick injuries can transmit infectious agents from patients to health care workers, while incorrect disposal can transmit disease to the community as a consequence of both needlestick injuries and improper reuse. 360 kb pdf
MPFFU on Hepatitis C At the recent MPFFU biennial convention, delegates adopted Resolution #35, which addresses firefighters and Hepatitis C. The resolution calls for MPFFU to provide its members with: Education and training to increase their awareness of the dangers of hepatitis C in the workplace, investigate the feasibility of a statewide program for testing firefighters, and introduce legislation to include infectious disease presumption law covering firefighters who are exposed to hepatitis C and other job-related infectious diseases.  

National Surveillance System For Health Care Workers

Needlestick and other percutaneous injuries (PIs) pose the greatest risk of occupational transmission of bloodborne viruses to health-care workers (HCWs). The annual number of PIs sustained by U.S. HCWs have been estimated using a variety of methods and have ranged from 100,000-1,000,000.


Needlestick and hepatitis C transmission The first is a case presentation of needlestick transmission of hepatitis C with a review of some aspects of transmission and treatment. For the purposes of this abstract data on transmission rates from a review (search strategy not given) of hepatitis C transmission studies is abstracted. The second study is a report of hepatitis C transmission in 14 workers with needlestick injuries in which the source patients were positive for both the hepatitis C antibody and RNA.  
Needlestick Injuries Among Healthcare Workers This statement summarizes the scientific issues related to needlestick injuries, including what we know about the number of workers affected, what can happen to a worker's health as a result of such an injury, how these injuries occur, and ways to prevent them. In addition, it describes what CDC is doing to address this serious public health problem.  
Needlestick Injuries among Health Care Workers in Washington State, 1996-2000 Executive Summary only: Health care workers are vulnerable to serious infectious diseases such as HIV, hepatitis B virus and hepatitis C virus following a needlestick injury…trend analysis showed an annual average increase of 5.84%. 17 kb pdf


Hundreds of medical workers become infected with the AIDS or hepatitis viruses from accidental punctures each year.


Needlestick prevention bill includes new workplace rules

The measure is expected to help guard physicians against injuries but also adds regulations for them to follow as employers


New Zealand Sex Industry-a guide to Occupational Health and Safety This guide has been written for everyone involved in the New Zealand sex industry: sex workers both employed and self-employed, operators, owners and others such as sex worker organizations. 408 kb pdf
Nurse, operating room This datasheet lists, in a standard format, different hazards to which nurse, operating rooms may be exposed in the course of their normal work…With the knowledge of what causes injuries and diseases, is easier to design and implement suitable measures towards prevention 89 kb pdf
Nurses' Working Conditions: Implications for Infectious Disease Staffing patterns and nurses' working conditions are risk factors for healthcare-associated infections as well as occupational injuries and infections. Staffing shortages, especially of nurses, have been identified as one of the major factors expected to constrain hospitals' ability to deal with future outbreaks of emerging infections. These problems are compounded by a global nursing shortage. Understanding and improving nurses' working conditions can potentially decrease the incidence of many infectious diseases. Relevant research is reviewed, and policy options are discussed.  

NY City Board Of Ed Fails To Protect Workers From Hepatitis


More than fifteen years after OSHA's bloodborne pathogens standard was issued to protect workers against contracting bloodborne diseases like AIDS and hepatitis B and C, some employers still haven't gotten the idea.  United Federation of Teachers President Randi Weingarten accused the [New York City] Department of Education on Nov. 15 of ignoring federal law requiring it to protect educators at risk of exposure to life-threatening pathogens in blood or bodily fluid  
OCCUPATIONAL DISEASE – UNDERSTANDING THE LAW The statutory formula for compensability for occupational disease is similar to that for accidental injuries, that is, “compensation for personal injuries to or for death of such employee by any “compensable” occupational disease arising out of and in the course of the employment.”   There appears to me to be three essential elements of Section 30. There must be an injury or death – due to a “compensable” occupational disease – which must arise out of and in the course of the employment.  There is an exception for willful self-exposure but that exception has never been established, to my knowledge  

Occupational Disease in Connecticut, 2001


Occupational diseases are a potentially under-recognized source of disability given the wide disparity in reporting requirements and procedures that exist in various jurisdictions. Nonetheless, an occupational disease could have major impacts on worker health, ability to work, and employer costs. Some diseases, such as cancers from asbestos exposure or HIV or hepatitis from exposure to bloodborne agents in health care, can be fatal. Other diseases, such as Carpal Tunnel Syndrome from ergonomic problems, can result in high levels of disability from loss of use of the hands. Prevention efforts, such as effective health and safety committees, ergonomic programs, or use of safe needle devices can result in substantial reductions in disease and costs; in theory, all occupational diseases are preventable. Pdf 205 kb
OCCUPATIONAL EXPOSURE The risk of HIV transmission to medical personnel has been recognized since 1984, with the first reported case of HIV transmitted to a health care worker (HCW) following needlestick injury (Anonymous, 1984). Since that time, information regarding occupational exposure and outcomes has been collected. As of October 1998, there were 187 reported cases in the medical literature of HIV transmission in the United States (CDC, 1998a) and 264 cases worldwide (Ippolito, 1999), presumably related to occupational exposure. A HCW is defined as any person whose activities involve contact with patients or with blood and/or body fluid from patients in a health care setting or laboratory setting. An exposure is defined as a percutaneous injury (needlestick or other cut with a sharp object), mucous membrane or nonintact skin (e.g., chapped or abraded skin, dermatitis), or prolonged contact and/or contact involving an extensive area with blood, tissue, or certain other body fluids.  
Occupational Exposure and Hepatitis C There were 148 patients (88 men, 60 women) aged 18 to 72 years (mean 45 years).Only 5% had no known risk factor, and the most commonly found known risk factors were injected drug use, sharing razors and toothbrushes, body piercing, being a recipient of blood products, sexual exposure and occupational exposure to blood in 48% to 32% of cases. Tattooing was associated with 17% of cases.  
Occupational Exposure to Blood Borne Pathogens-for correctional employees Significant exposures to correctional staff can occur in the course of providing healthcare, contact with sharps while cleaning or searching cells, during physical altercations, and by intentional “gassing” in which staff members are deliberately exposed to a patient’s body fluids 226 kb pdf
Occupational Medicine/ AIDS-HIV HIV is an occupational disease for corrections workers - Estate of Doe v. Dep't of Corr., 268 Conn. 753, 848 A.2d 378 (Conn 2004)  
Occupational Exposure to Bloodborne Pathogens-Precautions for Emergency Responders There are approximately 5.6 million workers in health care and other facilities who are at risk of exposure to bloodborne pathogens such as the human immunodeficiency virus and the hepatitis B virus and other potentially infectious materials…Others also at risk include law enforcement personnel, firefighters, paramedics, emergency medical technicians, and anyone whose job might require providing first-response medical care in which there is a reasonable expectation of contact with blood or other potentially infectious materials Pdf 125 kb

Occupational Exposure to Bloodborne Pathogens; Needlestick and Other Sharps Injuries

The Occupational Safety and Health Administration is revising the Bloodborne Pathogens standard in conformance with the requirements of the Needlestick Safety and Prevention Act. This Act directs OSHA to revise the Bloodborne Pathogens standard to include new examples in the definition of engineering controls along with two new definitions; to require that Exposure Control Plans reflect how employers implement new developments in control technology; to require employers to solicit input from employees responsible for direct patient care in the identification, evaluation, and selection of engineering and work practice controls; and to require certain employers to establish and maintain a log of percutaneous injuries from contaminated sharps.


Occupational Hazards among Clinical Dental Staff Occupational hazard can be defined as a risk to a person usually arising out of employment.  It can also refer to a work, material, substance, process, or situation that predisposes, or itself causes accidents or disease, at a work place. Pdf 586 kb
Occupational Hazards of Dentistry In carrying out their professional work, dentists are exposed to a number of occupational hazards.  These course the appearance of various ailments, specific to the profession, which develop and intensify with years.  In many cases they result in diseases and disease complexes, some of which are regarded as occupational illnesses. 97 kb pdf
OCCUPATIONAL INJURY OR DISEASE UNDER WISCONSIN WORKER’S COMPENSATION LAW Workers often sustain an injury or contract a disease arising out of their employment for which the employer and worker’s compensation insurer deny worker’s compensation benefits, on the grounds that the worker cannot identify a specific traumatic event that caused or precipitated the injury or disease.  Such a denial may be contrary to fact and law.  It is not always necessary for the worker to be able to identify a specific event or date of injury, in order for the claim to be compensable.  The purpose of this essay is to explain the concept of  “occupational injury or disease,” for which worker’s compensation benefits may indeed be awarded.  

Occupational Risks Magazine

Gives information on how to underwrite those claims and calculate them

458 kb pdf

Occupationally Acquired Infections in Health Care Workers


Occupational transmission to health care workers was identified for numerous diseases, including infections caused by bloodborne organisms (human immunodeficiency virus, hepatitis B virus, hepatitis C virus, Ebola virus), organisms spread through the oral-fecal route (salmonella, hepatitis A virus), and organisms spread through direct contact (herpes simplex virus, Sarcoptes scabiei). Most outbreak-associated attack rates range from 15% to 40%. Occupational transmission is usually associated with violation of one or more of three basic principles of infection control: handwashing, vaccination of health care workers, and prompt placement of infectious patients into appropriate isolation.  The risk for occupationally acquired infections is an unavoidable part of daily patient care. Occupationally acquired infections cause substantial illness and occasional deaths among health care workers. Further studies are needed to enhance compliance with established infection control approaches. As health care is being reformed, the risk for and costs of occupationally acquired infection must be considered.  

Occupationally Acquired HIV: The Vulnerability of Health Care Workers under Workers ' Compensation Laws

Approximately 800 000 needle-sticks and other sharp injuries from contaminated medical devices occur in health care settings each year, of which an estimated 16000 are contaminated by human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Health care workers who are Occupationally infected by HIV are at risk of being left without workers' compensation coverage. In some states, the definition of an occupational disease is so restrictive that infected health care workers are unlikely to qualify for benefits. For those who are able to meet the definition, compensation is often inadequate. Recourse is also limited by statutory provisions that preclude health care workers from bringing civil suits against their employers


Occupational Transmission Health care professionals are more susceptible than most members of the population to occupational hazards involving blood and other body fluids. The greatest hazard is associated with occupations involving perforating and cutting materials…Among medical professionals, surgeons present the highest risk because of their extensive use of needles and perforating instruments in surgical procedures. Plastic surgeons spend relatively more operating time suturing subcutaneous and skin than those involved in other surgical specialities…[they make] more use of more delicate materials such as skin hooks, thus maximizing the risk of perforations  
Occupational Transmission of HIV Summary of Published Reports, Dec. 1999  Series of tables and charts with several different break-downs 461 kb pdf
OCCUPATIONAL TRANSMISSION OF HIV AND HEPATITIS C VIRUS AFTER A PUNCH Awareness of the risk of occupational transmission of HIV to health care workers dates back to December 1984, when the first case of needlestick-transmitted HIV infection was reported  
OCCUPATIONALLY ACQUIRED IMMUNO DEFICIENCY SYNDROME IN INDIA Acquired immuno deficiency syndrome (AIDS) has been in the news for years. Recently it was overshadowed by severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS). In the case of SARS, the persons most at risk are health care workers. In the case of AIDS, health care workers are also at risk; workers in public hospitals are more at risk. These hospitals do not reject patients who contracted or who are suspected of contracting AIDS  
Oregon Ruling for Occupational Disease Claims Unlike a workers’ compensation claim, the occupational disease claim can expose the employer to whatever economic and non-economic damages, including pain and suffering and loss of lifestyle damages, the plaintiff can convince the jury to award.  The employer may be exposed to punitive damage claims in some cases 28 kb pdf

OSHA instructions for exposure

This instruction establishes policies and provides clarification to ensure uniform inspection procedures are followed when conducting inspections to enforce the Occupational Exposure to Bloodborne Pathogens Standard

1,297 kb pdf

OSHA rules for injury in the Work area


The Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) is revising its rule addressing the recording and reporting of occupational injuries and illnesses (29 CFR parts 1904 and 1952), including the forms employers use to record those injuries and illnesses. The revisions to the final rule will produce more useful injury and illness records, collect better information about the incidence of occupational injuries and illnesses on a national basis, promote improved employee awareness and involvement in the recording and reporting of job-related injuries and illnesses, simplify the injury and illness recordkeeping system for employers, and permit increased use of computers and telecommunications technology for OSHA recordkeeping purposes  
Police infected with AIDS About three thousand (3,000) police officers and men from across the nation have been discovered to be living with HIV/AIDs.  
Police to get help fighting hepatitis C When police and firefighters respond to an accident, officials
said, they face the risk of being infected with hepatitis C, exposed
through the blood and bodily fluids of victims.
Post Exposure Management of Occupational Exposure to Blood and Body Fluids Occupational Health and safety procedure and guidelines for Canadian Calgary Health Region 83 kb pdf
Post-Exposure Prophylaxis Guidelines In 1994, a large international study showed that administration of ZIDOVUDINE to an HIV-infected mother during pregnancy and labor, and subsequently to the baby after delivery reduced the risk for the baby becoming infected with HIV from about 25% to 9%. A second case-control study of healthcare workers, who had suffered needlestick exposure to HIV-infected blood, showed that ZIDOVUDINE post-exposure prophylaxis was associated with a decrease in the rate of seroconversion by 79%. These two studies demonstrate a potential benefit of using antiretroviral therapy at the time of, or shortly after, exposure to HIV.  
Pre-employment (and post-employment) drug screenings Pre-employment (and post-employment) drug screenings  
Probability Tables for disability Mathematical descriptions and methods used for determining the probability of disability used by the Rand corporation 230 kb pdf
Profiles of Occupational Injuries and Diseases in Michigan Work-related injuries and illnesses cost 1.5 billion dollars annually in workers’ compensation claims in Michigan, and the indirect costs of these conditions may be as much as five times greater (7.5 billion dollars). 1832 kb pdf
Protocol for follow-up after Exposure A protocol for the follow-up of healthcare workers exposed to hepatitis C virus is desperately needed, but limited data on occupational risk, transmission risk, and the benefits of therapy are hampering efforts to fashion one, according to a report from the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).  
Recognizing Occupational Disease Occupational exposures contribute to the morbidity and mortality of many diseases. However, occupational diseases continue to be underrecognized even though they are responsible for an estimated 860,000 illnesses and 60,300 deaths each year. Family physicians can play an important role in improving the recognition of occupational disease, preventing progressive illness and disability in their own patients, and contributing to the protection of other workers similarly exposed. This role can be maximized if physicians raise their level of suspicion for workplace disease, develop skills in taking occupational histories and establish routine access to occupational health resources.  
Recognizing Occupational Disease -Taking an Effective Occupational History The patient with a possibly work-related illness frequently seeks care initially from a family physician. The physician's recognition of a possible link between work and disease often determines the diagnostic tests that are performed and the treatment that is recommended. Early diagnosis of an occupational illness may prevent progressive morbidity and disability from conditions such as occupational asthma and may facilitate the reversal of adverse effects from exposures to substances such as lead. The identification of an occupational illness in one patient also provides the physician with an opportunity to protect other patients with similar exposures.  
Response to consultation on Aids/HIV infected health care workers This guidance will have the effect of restricting the occasions on which it is considered necessary to notify patients that they may have been at risk of exposure to the HIV virus. This reflects the evidence which shows that in the UK there has been no recorded case of infection passing from a healthcare worker to a patient, and only two reported incidents worldwide. The NHS therefore seeks to reduce the possibility of anxiety, and the costs of unnecessary counselling and testing for the virus, in situations in which the risk of infection is considered to be very low. Previously, all patients in the UK have been notified regardless of their level of risk. The new policy is designed to avoid unnecessary anxiety to patients and puts Britain more in line with practice in other countries. From now on the risk of HIV transmission to patients will be assessed on a case by case basis and whether patients are notified will depend on the level of risk. Pdf 41 kb
Risk & Management of Blood-borne infections-Healthcare

(Large report-increased down-load time)

Exposure to blood-borne pathogens poses a serious risk to health care workers (HCWs). We review the risk and management of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), hepatitis B virus (HBV), and hepatitis C virus (Hepatitis C Virus) infections in HCWs and also discuss current methods for preventing exposures and recommendations for postexposure prophylaxis  
Risk and Management of Blood-Borne Infections in Health Care Workers Exposure to blood-borne pathogens poses a serious risk to health care workers (HCWs). We review the risk and management of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), hepatitis B virus (HBV), and hepatitis C virus (HCV) infections in HCWs and also discuss current methods for preventing exposures and recommendations for postexposure prophylaxis. In the health care setting, blood-borne pathogen transmission occurs predominantly by percutaneous or mucosal exposure of workers to the blood or body fluids of infected patients. Prospective studies of HCWs have estimated that the average risk for HIV transmission after a percutaneous exposure is approximately 0.3%, the risk of HBV transmission is 6 to 30%, and the risk of HCV transmission is approximately 1.8%. To minimize the risk of blood-borne pathogen transmission from HCWs to patients, all HCWs should adhere to standard precautions, including the appropriate use of hand washing, protective barriers, and care in the use and disposal of needles and other sharp instruments  
Six health workers get HIV The inquiry found health-care workers had a one in three chance of
acquiring hepatitis B from contaminated "sharps", one in 30 of
getting hepatitis C and one in 300 of HIV.
Social Costs of Occupational Disease and Injury “These huge financial costs are being borne by – and impacting upon – employers, employees and society,” says Pearce. “And of course the effects are much more than financial – there are often significant and long-term social consequences for the injured and sick people and for their families, workplaces and communities – and further down the track, the health system, the Government and the economy. “We must address these costs, and soon. Every year between 700 and 1,000 people die from occupational disease and 100 people die from occupational injury. We also see up to 20,000 cases of new work-related diseases, and about 200,000 work-related injuries that result in claims to ACC. This is a huge and unacceptable burden for New Zealand to bear.”  
South Africa: Compensation for Occupational Injuries and Diseases Amendment Bill COSATU wishes to use the opportunity of its submission to Parliament’s Labour Portfolio Committee on the Compensation for Occupational Injuries and Diseases Amendment Bill ("COIDA Amendment Bill") to re-emphasise the need for effectively enforced legislation to provide for the compensation of South African workers who are injured or who contract disease in the course of their employment.  

Standard Precautions and Bloodborne Pathogens-A training for Child Care providers

Power Point presentation-Standard Precautions apply to blood, other body fluids containing blood, semen, and vaginal secretions. Standard Precautions do not apply to feces, nasal secretions, sputum, sweat, tears, urine, saliva and vomit unless these contain visible blood or are likely to contain blood.  
Statistics of occupational injuries In recent decades, a number of countries have considerably developed their systems for the notification of occupational injuries and for the collection and compilation of statistics in this field (see, for example, HSE, 1996; The Danish Labour Inspection Service, 1991; and United States Department of Labor, 1997). These developments concern not just the types of data collected and the coverage of the systems, but also the classifications used in order to improve the data available for prevention purposes. In addition, in January 1990, the European Union launched a study on European Statistics on Accidents at Work (ESAW), aimed at formulating proposals for the harmonization of statistics of accidents at work throughout the European Union. The project is managed jointly by the Statistical Office of the European Communities (EUROSTAT) and the Directorate-General for Employment, Industrial Relations and Social Affairs (DGV). Considerable progress has been achieved in this project in the development of common variables relating to occupational injuries and accidents, together with their respective classification systems, which are crucial to the goal of harmonization (EUROSTAT, 1992 and 1997). Pdf 159 kb

Surveillance of Health Care Workers with HIV/AIDS

These cases represented 5.1% of the 453,462 AIDS cases reported to CDC for whom occupational information was known

42 kb pdf

Surveillance of occupational exposure to bloodborne pathogens in health care workers: the Italian national programme

Health care workers (HCWs) face a serious risk of acquiring bloodborne infections, in particular hepatitis B virus (HBV), hepatitis C virus (Hepatitis C Virus), and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), all of which are associated with significant morbidity and mortality. In 1986 the coordinating centre of the Italian study on occupational risk of HIV Infection


Surveillance is The First Step to Solving the Problem-EPINet Power Point Presentation explaining a computer program that can be used as a management tool to identify key areas where needlesticks occur frequently, thus targeting areas for reduction of risk 331 kb
The Myth of Workers' Compensation Fraud In recent years, the insurance industry's focus on cheaters and malingerers helped push through national workers' compensation reform, a profitable cost-cutting campaign supported by outrage over alleged abuse of the system. The problem, however, is that the fraud image is false for the vast majority of workers' compensation cases. Studies show that only 1 to 2 percent of workers' compensation claims are fraudulent. Certainly, the tens of thousands of workers killed every year were hardly aiming for a free ride on their employer's tab.  
The needle-stick epidemic The International Health Care Worker Safety Center (University of Virginia) estimates more than 1 million accidental needle sticks occur per year. Higher rates have been reported by the Centers for Disease Control and medical journals. Although nearly invisible to the public, this epidemic of accidental needle sticks is infecting thousands of American medical workers with potentially lethal diseases. It has reached a crisis stage, as each day medical workers suffer some 2,400 accidental sticks.  

The rate of transmission to susceptible health care workers

Gives probability for infection


Through the Looking Glass

Report from Canada on the results of acquiring Hepatitis C Virus thru blood transfusions and the changes in lifestyle and standard of living

305 kb pdf

Transmission and Prevention of Occupational Infections in Orthopaedic Surgeons Surgeons and health-care workers have always had a high risk of exposure to blood-borne diseases as a result of their occupation. Orthopaedic surgeons have substantial occupational exposure to blood and the risk of blood-borne infection because of frequent handling of sharp instruments, metal objects (e.g., wire), and bone fragments during operative procedures  
Transmission of hepatitis C by blood splash into conjunctiva in a nurse The risk of transmission of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is an important problem for the health care worker. HCV transmission by blood splashing into eyes is very rare. In a hemodialyses department, a 23-year-old female nurse splashed blood from a patient who was anti-HCV positive into her eyes. She washed her eyes with water immediately and reported to the infection control department. She had never used intravenous drugs nor received transfusions. At the time of exposure, there was no abnormality in her laboratory tests. Her anti-HCV and HCV-RNA tests produced negative results. Pdf 65 kb

Unaffordable medication

Testimony of Alan Sager on winning affordable medications for all Americans

27 kb pdf

US Federal employees: Reporting Occupational Injuries, Illnesses and Diseases The Federal Employees' Compensation Act (FECA) provides monetary compensation, medical care, vocational rehabilitation and Office of Personnel Management (OPM) retention rights to Federal employees who sustain disabling injuries, illnesses or diseases as a result of their employment with the Federal Government.  
Viral workload The impact of hepatitis C among first responders originally was heralded to be at epidemic proportions. These claims created a major conflict between fire service administration, labor unions, public health organizations, and worker's compensation and risk management concerns. The demand for scientific evidence to support or refute the claims of alarming rates of chronic hepatitis C infection caused the CDC to review available sero-prevalence data among U.S. first responders.  
What is the risk of acquiring hepatitis C for health care workers and what are the recommendations for prophylaxis and follow-up after occupational exposure to Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is most efficiently transmitted by large or repeated percutaneous exposures to blood, such as through the transfusion of blood or blood products from infectious donors and sharing of contaminated needles among injection drug users. Other bloodborne viruses, such as the hepatitis B virus (HBV), are transmitted not only by overt percutaneous exposures, but by mucous membrane and in apparent parenteral exposures. Although these types of exposures are prevalent among health-care workers, the risk factors for HCV transmission in this occupational setting are not well-defined.  

Work-related Death: A continuing Epidemic

Work-related illnesses and injuries kill approximately 1.1 million people per year. In 1992, an estimated 65,000 people in the United States died of occupational injuries or illness

71 kb pdf

Worker's Compensation Too often, employers and insurance carriers are able to avoid their responsibility to injured workers simply because the workers do not know their rights under the Workers' Compensation Act. Next to being aware of the hazards of your particular workplace, the most important weapon you can have to protect yourself in the event of a work-related injury or fatality is your knowledge of your rights under the Workers' Compensation Act.  
Workers’ Compensation This information brief explains workers’ compensation in Minnesota including its history, what is covered under the law, benefits available to an employee and an employee’s dependents, and how disputes are resolved. A glossary at the end defines agencies and terms. Pdf 38 kb

Workers’ Compensation and Hepatitis C

The Hawaii Supreme Court recently found three dentists liable for the workers’ compensation benefits of a dental hygienist diagnosed with hepatitis C—even though the hygienist may have contracted the disease before she was employed by some or all of the dentists…As this article was being written, the Hawaii court was reviewing motions to reconsider its ruling in this case  
Workers Compensation list List of Workers Compensation offices throughout the US  





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